Journal of Proteomics, 2020, 227, 103915
This work aimed to evaluate the modifications on the proteome profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73™ strain as a consequence of its adaptive response to the presence of tetraconazole molecules in the fermentation medium. Pasteurised grape juices were separately supplemented with tetraconazole or a commercial formulation containing 12.5% w/v of tetraconazole at two concentration levels. In addition, experiments without fungicides were developed for comparative purposes.
Proteome profiles of yeasts cultured in the presence or absence of fungicide molecules were different. Independently of the fungicide treatment applied, the highest variations concerning the control sample were observed for those proteins involved in metabolic processes, especially in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds. Tetraconazole molecules altered the abundance of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, purines, and ergosterol. Moreover, differences in the abundance of several enzymes of the TCA cycle were found. Changes observed were different between the active substance and the commercial formulation.
The presence of fungicide residues in grape juice has direct implications on the development of the aromatic profile of the wine. These alterations could be related to changes in the secondary metabolism of yeasts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of yeasts to fungicide residues remains quite unexplored. Through this exhaustive proteomic study, alterations in the amino acids biosynthesis pathways due to the presence of the tetraconazole molecules were observed. Amino acids are precursors of some important higher alcohols and ethyl acetates (such as methionol, 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl alcohol or 2-phenylacetate). Besides, the effect of tetraconazole on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway could be related to a higher production of medium-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl acetates.