Food Res. Int. 155, 111037, 2022
Apples represent a significant source of dietary phenolic compounds with evidenced anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Nevertheless, the effect of the whole apple matrix on human macrophages is unknown. In this context, our study attempts to evaluate the effect of apple-derived phenolic compounds-rich extracts (pulp, peel and leaf) on IL-1β production in THP-1-differentiated macrophages and derived metabolic alterations through untargeted metabolomics. Our results have showed that apple pulp treatment inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β induced by LPS in THP-1 macrophages by ELISA analysis. Metabolomics demonstrate that different proportions of phenolic compounds led to differential alterations in the metabolism of THP-1 macrophages. Indeed, apple extracts promoted alterations in lipid, carbohydrate, amino acid and vitamins as well as cofactors metabolism. Specifically, leaf extracts were characterized by alteration of galactose metabolism while the extracts derived from the fruit showed predominant alterations in lipids metabolism. All extracts mimicked the response observed under normal conditions in LPS-stimulated macrophages, inhibiting LPS response. Thus, the phenolic enriched extracts from apples will be a good source of natural compounds with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and they may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.