Phytotherapy Research, 36, 2839-2851, 2022
Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) is an evergreen tree native to the Maluku Islands, Indonesia. M. fragrans kernel is extensively used in Indian traditional medicines to treat various diseases. Several studies attempt to compile and interpret the pharmacological potential of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) aqueous and various chemical extracts. Thus, the pharmacological potential of nutmeg essential oil has not been reviewed phytochemically and pharmacologically. Therefore, the present study aimed to share appropriate literature evidence regarding the plant essential oil chemical composition and therapeutic potential of Myristica fragrans essential oil (MFEO). MFEO of leaf, mace, kernel, and seed were used worldwide as potential Ayurvedic medicine and fragrance. MFEO extracted by various methods and oil yield was 0.7–3.2, 8.1–10.3, 0.3–12.5, and 6.2–7.6% in leaf, mace, seed, and kernel. The primary chemical constituents of MFEO were sabinene, eugenol, myristicin, caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and α-pinene. Clinical and experimental investigations have confirmed the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anticancer, antimalarial, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities of MFEO. It is the first attempt to compile oil yield, composition, and the biological activities of MFEO. In future, several scientific investigations are required to understand the mechanism of action of MFEO and their bioactive constituents.