Extrusion-based 3D food printing is one of the most common ways to manufacture complex shapes and personalized food. A wide variety of food raw materials have been documented in the last two decades for the fabrication of personalized food for various groups of people. This review aims to highlight the most relevant and current information on the use of protein raw materials as functional 3D food printing ink. The functional properties of protein raw materials, influencing factors, and application of different types of protein in 3D food printing were also discussed. This article also clarified that the effective and reasonable utilization of protein is a vital part of the future 3D food printing ink development process. The challenges of achieving comprehensive nutrition and customization, enhancing printing precision and accuracy, and paying attention to product appearance, texture, and shelf life remain significant.