The current global changes in economic, social, and technological production systems of food necessitate developing innovative solutions and strategies that ensure maximum utilization of food resources to produce desirable and wholesome food products. Food chemistry and related research activities are arguably the core of research activities that ensure the achievement of the above goals. This Research Topic is aimed at capturing prominent food chemistry research activities to provide recent insights and current research activities to meet the above goals. This Research Topic provides a balanced collection of original research, reviews, and new methods contributions, authored by experts in the field. The studies reported in the present Research Topic can be generally categorized into the following themes: food safety research that was concerned with the detection and quantification of pesticides and antimicrobial agents; studies on bioactive compounds, their stability and biofunctionalities; fractionation of pea protein, and others.