Ochradenus baccatus Delile (Resedaceae) is a desert plant with edible fruits native to the Middle East. Few investigators have reported antibacterial, antiparasitic and anti-cancer activities of the plant. Herein we evaluated the cytotoxic activity of O. baccatus using four cell lines and a zebrafish embryo model. Additionally, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy was performed to characterize the extract’s main constituents. The highest cytotoxicity was observed against human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), with CC50 of 39.1 µg/mL and a selectivity index (SI) of 7.23 (p < 0.01). Metabolic analysis of the extract resulted in the annotation of 57 metabolites, including fatty acids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, nitrile glycosides, in addition to organic acids. The extract showed an abundance of hydroxylated fatty acids (16 peaks). Further, 3 nitrile glycosides have been identified for the first time in Ochradenus sp., in addition to 2 glucosinolates. These identified phytochemicals may partially explain the cytotoxic activity of the extract. We propose O. baccatus as a possible safe food source for further utilization to partially contribute to the increasing food demand specially in Saharan countries.