Monday, 14 July 2014

O aceite de oliva galego, mellor se é de agricultura ecolóxica



A agricultura ecolóxica medrou nos últimos anos a un ritmo moi alto. Do mesmo xeito, o sector do aceite de oliva galego tamén está consolidándose como un eido socioeconómico emerxente, converténdose no último lustro nun cultivo alternativo puxante nalgunhas zonas de Galicia. Tendo en conta estas dúas tendencias, investigadores da Área de Nutrición e Bromatoloxía da Universidade de Vigo veñen de analizar como afecta a determinadas propiedades do aceite de olivas galegas, como o sabor e a capacidade antioxidante, o feito de proceder de agricultura ecolóxica ou convencional. Os resultados obtidos indican a que a calidade funcional e sensorial dos aceites de procedencia ecolóxica é superior. Esta circunstancia, apuntan os investigadores, pode supor un valor engadido e diferencial para a comercialización da produción galega, que polas súas características podería adoptar a etiqueta de ecolóxica sen necesidade de grandes transformacións. 

O estudo, titulado Comparación de compostos fenólicos en aceites de olivas galegas procedentes da agricultura ecolóxica e convencional, foi realizado por Patricia Reboredo e Ebru Derya Cenk baixo a supervisión dos investigadores do Área de Nutrición e Bromatoloxía da Facultade de Ciencias do campus de Ourense Beatriz Cancho, Jesús Simal, Ledicia Rey e Carmen González. “A investigación, presentada recentemente no V Congreso Internacional de Agroecoloxía e Agricultura Ecolóxica celebrado en Vigo, forma parte da liña de traballo que puxemos en marcha en 2009 centrada na caracterización aromática e de compostos bioactivos dos aceites de oliva virxe extra producidos con olivas de variedades cultivadas en Galicia, concretamente das variedades autóctonas coñecidas popularmente como brava e mansa, que non se atopan recollidas na base de datos do Banco Mundial de Germoplasma del Olivo”, explica Jesús Simal. 

Condicionando o sabor e as súas cualidades bio

Segundo recolle o estudo, a olivicultura ecolóxica é un modelo de manexo das oliveiras amparado no regulamento CE 834/2007 onde as técnicas de obtención de olivas lévanse a cabo evitando a degradación e contaminación do ecosistema e favorecendo a biodiversidade e o equilibrio ecolóxico a través de diferentes prácticas, como a incorporación de variedades locais, a loita biolóxica, os abonos verdes e o manexo de cubertas vexetais, entre outras cuestións. “A calidade do aceite de oliva ecolóxico comeza no campo e remata no envasado, por ser o aceite de oliva o zume natural dun froito obtido por procedementos exclusivamente mecánicos e, por tanto, coas características innatas do froito de onde procede”, destaca Patricia Reboredo.

Tendo en conta a escaseza de investigacións neste eido e co obxectivo de ter máis datos sobre as cualidades do aceite de orixe ecolóxica, os investigadores analizaron nove mostras de aceite obtidas a partir de olivas autóctonas, procedentes seis delas de agricultura ecolóxica e tres da convencional do municipio lucense de Ribas do Sil, onde contaron coa colaboración do olivicultor Miguel Rodríguez. No aceite, indica o estudo, existen multitude de compostos orgánicos que determinan as súas características organolépticas (como sabor, textura, olor ou cor), sendo os compostos fenólicos e volátiles os principais responsables das mesmas. Estes compostos transfírense da oliva ao aceite durante o seu proceso de elaboración. 

Os compostos fenólicos relaciónanse co sabor do aceite, en particular cos atributos sensoriais positivos de amargo e picante, ademais de presentar un importante carácter antioxidante e ser considerados compostos bioactivos, o que os fai tamén responsables, entre outras cousas, da estabilidade oxidativa e do valor funcional do produto. Nas mostras analizadas identificáronse un total de dez compostos fenólicos, concluíndose que o contido de hidroxitirosol e dos seus derivados en aceites procedentes de produción ecolóxica é superior aos de produción convencional. “Este resultado é de grande interese porque repercute directamente na calidade funcional e sensorial dos aceites”, apunta Carmen González.

Na actualidade, indica o artigo, a superficie dedicada á agricultura ecolóxica de oliveiras en Galicia representa pouco máis de doce hectáreas. Porén, e dado o auxe tanto da agricultura ecolóxica como da produción de aceite en Galicia, albíscase un futuro emerxente para este sector. Neste contexto, sinalan os investigadores, a produción ecolóxica de aceite de oliva pode converterse nun elemento de diferenciación esencial no mercado. “Dadas as características de produción en Galicia, onde, pola súa escasa implantación, é relativamente fácil dar o paso dun cultivo de oliveiras convencional a outro ecolóxico, este salto pode constituír no futuro próximo un elemento clave de competitividade empresarial”, destacan por últimos os autores do estudo.

Fonte: DUVI
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