Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 8100195
Despite the progression in targeting the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and spinal cord injury (SCI), there is a lack of effective treatments. Moreover, conventional therapies suffer from associated side effects and low efficacy, raising the need for finding potential alternative therapies. In this regard, a comprehensive review was done regarding revealing the main neurological dysregulated pathways and providing alternative therapeutic agents following SCI. From the mechanistic point, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are major upstream orchestras of cross-linked dysregulated pathways (e.g., apoptosis, autophagy, and extrinsic mechanisms) following SCI. It urges the need for developing multitarget therapies against SCI complications. Polyphenols, as plant-derived secondary metabolites, have the potential of being introduced as alternative therapeutic agents to pave the way for treating SCI. Such secondary metabolites presented modulatory effects on neuronal oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and extrinsic axonal dysregulated pathways in the onset and progression of SCI. In the present review, the potential role of phenolic compounds as critical phytochemicals has also been revealed in regulating upstream dysregulated oxidative stress/inflammatory signaling mediators and extrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration after SCI in preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, the coadministration of polyphenols and stem cells has shown a promising strategy for improving post-SCI complications.