Tuesday, 11 June 2013

De residuos no tratamento da uva a nutrintes para a terra dos viñedos

A perlita e a bentonita son dous residuos minerais que resultan do proceso de filtrado e clarificado do viño. Na súa tese de licenciatura en Ciencias Ambientais, a investigadora Isabel Rodríguez buscou un novo uso a ese material sobrante analizando que beneficios lle aportaba a súa incorporación á terra dos propios viñedos. Por este traballo, vén de ser distinguida pola Facultade de Ciencias do campus de Ourense co Premio Julia Franco á mellor tese de licenciatura do centro. 

“Este premio é un recoñecemento ao traballo de todo o grupo da Área de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, do Departamento de Bioloxía Vexetal e Ciencias do Solo da Universidade de Vigo, no marco do cal fixen este estudo e no que continúo agora realizando a miña tese de doutoramento na mesma temática”, destaca Isabel Rodríguez. Baixo a dirección dos docentes Juan Carlos Nóvoa e Manuel Arias, o seu traballo consistiu en estudar durante seis meses as consecuencias da incorporación á terra dun viñedo do Concello de Castrelo de Miño dos citados residuos minerais. En primeiro lugar, explica, analizouse se a perlita e a bentonita podían, e en que grao, absorber funxicidas e retelos no seu interior. En segundo lugar, estudouse como a incorporación destes materiais afectaba ás propiedades químicas do terreo. 

Primeiros resultados

Segundo os primeiros resultados obtidos e que deron lugar á tese de licenciatura, aínda que os dous residuos teñen capacidade de absorver os funxicidas presentes nos terreos dos viñedos, concretamente o funxicida chamado ciprodinil, a perlita tería unha maior capacidade de retelo no seu interior unha vez absorbido, un comportamento que o faría máis atractivo para o sector. “A adición destes minerais aumenta a capacidade de retención de ciprodinil como consecuencia dos cambios que provocan na composición química do solo”, comenta a investigadora. No que se refire ás propiedades químicas, o estudo conclúe que a aplicación de bentonita ten resultados máis positivos sobre as propiedades químicas do viñedo. “En xeral, algunhas das propiedades como o pH ou o contido dalgúns nutrintes melloran coa adición de ambos residuos, se ben é máis evidente nas mostras de solo enmendadas con residuo bentonítico”, destaca. Ademais, recalca Rodríguez, os resultados descartan o aumento da salinidade do terreo que tipicamente se observa trala aplicación deste tipo de refugallos en solos agrícolas. 

A investigación apunta que algúns destes efectos observados, sobre todo no caso da bentonita, son relevantes para un mellor crecemento da vide, podendo influenciar positivamente na produción da uva e na calidade do viño. “Adicionalmente, a materia orgánica aportada ao solo cos residuos podería aumentar a capacidade de retención da auga no terreo e mellorar a súa estrutura”, comenta Isabel Rodríguez. “Estes son os primeiros resultados nos que agora, coa realización da tese, queremos profundar, sobre todo ampliando o tempo de estudo e probando con diferentes cantidades de residuos na terra, dous factores que son fundamentais nesta investigación”, salienta a investigadora do campus de Ourense. 

“O sector vitivinícola xera unha cantidade moi grande de residuos que supoñen un problema para as propias empresas e para o medio ambiente. Desde a Área de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola trabállase moito na busca de alternativas de reutilización destes materiais, que son principalmente de tipo agrícola. Con esta investigación queremos tamén afondar noutros materiais de refugallo menos estudados, como son os minerais, e continuar axudando a un mellor desenvolvemento do sector a través da investigación científica”, subliña Rodríguez, que recibiu o seu galardón o pasado venres no acto de graduación do centro.

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