Wednesday, 18 November 2015

Dissipation kinetics of pre-plant pesticides in greenhouse-devoted soils

Science of the Total Environment, 543 (A) (2016) 1-8

This work was conducted to study the distribution of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in greenhouse soils treated with the fumigant dazomet (DZ) from the formulated product “Basamid Granular®”, but also of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) from the fumigant “Agrocelhone NE®”. In order to achieve this aim, several methods for the determination of fumigants residues in soils, but also pepper fruits were optimized and characterized. With independence of the soil depth, no residues of MITC, 1,3-D and CP above the detection limits were observed in soils covered with a polyethylene (PE) film (0.04 mm thick) after 27, 13 and 8 days of treatment, respectively. Liberation and dissipation curves of MITC in soil in presence of a PE film (0.04 mm) used to limit volatilization losses were also obtained. According to the results, the rate of decomposition of DZ into MITC have a half-life of 3.7 days in the surface horizon (5–10 cm) of the soil while in the subsurface horizon (15–20 cm), MITC formation rate is slightly slow (half-life of 3.2 days). With respect to the dissipation process, half-lives lower than 1 day were obtained for both depths (0.8 and 0.9 for the surface and the subsurface horizon, respectively). In the case of 1,3-D and CP in soil, the dissipation half-life of 1,3-D on soils was a bit higher than for CP (2 days vs. 1). In addition, the presence of residues of the fumigants on green pepper fruits grown on the treated soils was not detected as expected.