Tuesday, 28 June 2016

As (V)/Cr (VI) pollution control in soils, hemp waste, and other by-products: competitive sorption trials

Environmental Science and Pollution Research
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7108-0

We study As(V)/Cr(VI) competitive sorption on a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, mussel shell, pine bark, oak ash, and hemp waste, adding variable As(V) and Cr(VI) concentrations or displacing each pollutant with the same concentration of the other. When using variable concentrations, As(V) showed more affinity than Cr(VI) for sorption sites on most materials (sorption up to >84 % on oak ash and pyritic material). The only exception was pine bark, with clearly higher Cr(VI) sorption (>90 %) for any Cr(VI)/As(V) concentration added. Regarding the displacement experiments, when As(V) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal Cr(VI) concentration did not cause relevant As displacement from oak ash and pyritic material, indicating strong As bindings, and/or low competitive effects. When Cr(VI) was added and reached sorption equilibrium, the subsequent addition of equal As(V) concentration caused Cr(VI) displacement from all materials except pine bark, indicating weak Cr bindings. In view of these results, oak ash and the pyritic material could be used to remove As(V) in concentrations as high as 6 mmol L−1, even in the presence of a wide range of Cr(VI) concentrations, whereas pine bark could be used to remove Cr(VI) concentrations as high as 6 mmol L−1. The other materials assayed (including hemp waste, studied for the first time as As(V) and Cr(VI) bio-sorbent) cannot be considered appropriate to remove As(V) and/or Cr(VI) from polluted media.

Thursday, 16 June 2016

Production et caractérisation d’une nouvelle boisson alcoolisée distillée produite à partir de grande myrtille (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)

Fruits, 2016, vol. 71(4), 215-220

La culture d’espèces de baies sous-utilisées et leur transformation en produits à haute valeur ajoutée, tels que les spiritueux à base de fruits, pourraient avoir un effet bénéfique sur l’économie des régions rurales et défavorisées des montagnes d’Espagne. La production d’une boisson alcoolisée distillée à partir de grandes myrtilles ou bleuets n’a pourtant jamais été signalée auparavant. La pâte de bleuet var. Bluecrop fermentée avec Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFI83, a été distillée en utilisant un système de distillation par train de vapeur d’eau; les composés volatils ont été déterminés par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Dans le distillat obtenu, les concentrations moyennes d’éthanol (45,3 mL 100 mL-1 distillat), de substances volatiles (317,1 g hL-1 alcool absolu, aa) et de méthanol (261,0 g hL-1 aa) étaient conformes aux spécifications que le Conseil européen (règlement 110/2008) fixe pour ces composés. De plus, les rapports [3-méthyl-1-butanol/2-méthyl-1-propanol] et [2-méthyl-1-propanol/1-propanol] ont été de 2,60 et 1,34, respectivement, indiquant que la boisson alcoolisée distillée a une bonne qualité organoleptique. Les résultats suggèrent que la grande myrtille peut être utilisée avec succès pour la production d’un nouveau spiritueux de bonne qualité organoleptique et sanitaire pour les consommateurs.

Wednesday, 8 June 2016

Proteome changes in Garnacha Tintorera red grapes during post-harvest drying

LWT - Food Science and Technology, 69 (2016) 608–613

Fruit raisining is accompanied by changes in composition due to the joint action of water loss and modifying enzymes. Cell walls in grape berries form a barrier against diffusion of aromatic and polyphenolic compounds that influence wine quality. In this work, fresh and post-harvest dried grape samples of Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera variety were compared in terms of proteome. The main change observed during raisining was over-expression from 14 to 47% of proteins involved in pathogen- and stress-resistance mechanisms, whereas metabolism-related proteins or those involved in the transcription and synthesis of other proteins decreased, respectively, from 43 to 27% and from 29 to 13%. These changes are important in the functional qualities and stability of the sweet wines obtained, since affect interactions with other macromolecules or metabolites.

Monday, 6 June 2016

Terpenoid trans-caryophyllene inhibits weed germination and induces plant water status alteration and oxidative damage in adult Arabidopsis

Plant Biology
DOI: 10.1111/plb.12471

trans-Caryophyllene (TC) is a sesquiterpene commonly found as volatile component in many different aromatic plants. Although the phytotoxic effects of trans-caryophyllene on seedling growth are relatively explored, not many information is available regarding the phytotoxicity of this sesquiterpenes on weed germination and on adult plants. The phytotoxic potential of TC was assayed in vitro on weed germination and seedling growth to validate its phytotoxic potential on weed species. Moreover, it was assayed on the metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana adult plants, through two different application ways, spraying and watering, in order to establish the primary affected organ and to deal with the unknown mobility of the compound. The results clearly indicated that TC inhibited both seed germination and root growth, as demonstrated by comparison of the ED50 values. Moreover, although trans-caryophyllene-sprayed adult Arabidopsis plants did not show any effect, trans-caryophyllene-watered plants became strongly affected. The results suggested that root uptake was a key step for the effectiveness of this natural compound and its phytotoxicity on adult plants was mainly due to the alteration of plant water status accompanied by oxidative damage.