Wednesday, 18 May 2022

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Natural Extract: Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties

 Nanomaterials 2022, 12(10), 1725

The chemical content of plant excerpts can be efficiently employed to reduce the metal ions to nanoparticles in the one-pot green production method. Here, green production of silver nanoparticles (AC-AgNPs) is performed by means of Allium cepa var. Aggregatum (shallot) extract as a stabilizer and reducer. The shape, size, and morphology of resultant AC-AgNPs are examined by optical spectroscopy analysis such as UV for nucleation and coalescence processes of the AC-AgNPs. Through FTIR functional group is determined and through DLS size is defined, it was confirmed that metallic AgNPs were successfully synthesized through the green synthesis route, and these results agreed well with the results obtained in the XRD pattern along with TEM spectroscopy, where the TEM images confirm the formation of sphere-like nanostructures along with SAED analysis. The chemical characterization is performed with XPS; the obtained molecular species in the materials are determined from the energy profile. Antioxidant activity of AC-AgNPs versus DPPH substrate is carried out. Antibacterial activity is well established against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Cell viability is accomplished, followed by an MTT assay, and a cytotoxicity assay of AC-AgNPs on MCF—7 cell lines is also carried out. Highlights: (1). This study highlights the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Allium cepa var. Aggregatum Natural Extract. (2). The synthesized AC-AgNPs were characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, XRD, TEM, and XPS. (3). The synthesized nanoparticles were well dispersed in nature and the size range of 35 ± 8 nm. (4). The anti-candidal activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the following Gram-Negative organisms: Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the following Gram-positive organisms: Staphylococcus aureus strains. The biosynthesized AC-AgNPs showed enhanced antiseptic features anti both Gram-positive and negative organisms. (5). Besides, the in vitro cytotoxic outcomes of AC-AgNPs were assessed versus MCF-7 cancerous cells, and the reduction in the feasibility of cancer cells was established via MTT assay, which suggests potential biomedical applications.

Friday, 13 May 2022

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil: A review on its composition, biological, and pharmacological activities

Phytotherapy Research, 36, 2839-2851, 2022

Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) is an evergreen tree native to the Maluku Islands, Indonesia. M. fragrans kernel is extensively used in Indian traditional medicines to treat various diseases. Several studies attempt to compile and interpret the pharmacological potential of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) aqueous and various chemical extracts. Thus, the pharmacological potential of nutmeg essential oil has not been reviewed phytochemically and pharmacologically. Therefore, the present study aimed to share appropriate literature evidence regarding the plant essential oil chemical composition and therapeutic potential of Myristica fragrans essential oil (MFEO). MFEO of leaf, mace, kernel, and seed were used worldwide as potential Ayurvedic medicine and fragrance. MFEO extracted by various methods and oil yield was 0.7–3.2, 8.1–10.3, 0.3–12.5, and 6.2–7.6% in leaf, mace, seed, and kernel. The primary chemical constituents of MFEO were sabinene, eugenol, myristicin, caryophyllene, β-myrcene, and α-pinene. Clinical and experimental investigations have confirmed the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anticancer, antimalarial, anticonvulsant, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities of MFEO. It is the first attempt to compile oil yield, composition, and the biological activities of MFEO. In future, several scientific investigations are required to understand the mechanism of action of MFEO and their bioactive constituents.

Wednesday, 11 May 2022

Fruit Juice Industry Wastes as a Source of Bioactives

 J. Agric. Food Chem. 2022, 70, 23, 6805–6832

Food processing sustainability, as well as waste minimization, are key concerns for the modern food industry. A significant amount of waste is generated by the fruit juice industry each year. In addition to the economic losses caused by the removal of these wastes, its impact on the environment is undeniable. Therefore, researchers have focused on recovering the bioactive components from fruit juice processing, in which a great number of phytochemicals still exist in the agro-industrial wastes, to help minimize the waste burden as well as provide new sources of bioactive compounds, which are believed to be protective agents against certain diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Although these wastes contain non-negligible amounts of bioactive compounds, information on the utilization of these byproducts in functional ingredient/food production and their impact on the sensory quality of food products is still scarce. In this regard, this review summarizes the most recent literature on bioactive compounds present in the wastes of apple, citrus fruits, berries, stoned fruits, melons, and tropical fruit juices, together with their extraction techniques and valorization approaches. Besides, on the one hand, examples of different current food applications with the use of these wastes are provided. On the other hand, the challenges with respect to economic, sensory, and safety issues are also discussed.

Monday, 2 May 2022

Volatile Flavor Compounds of Pugionium cornutum (L.) Gaertn. Before and After Different Dehydration Treatments

 Front. Nutr., 2022

Pugionium cornutum (L.) Gaertn (also Pugionium) is a special Mongolian vegetable, belonging to the Cruciferous family, growing in arid and semi-arid areas of northern China, with a unique flavor and potential health benefits. This article aims to describe the profile of volatile flavor compounds in fresh and different dehydrated samples, establish the fingerprint, and identify the characteristic compounds. The fresh Pugionium sample and 3 kinds of dehydrated samples were analyzed. Headspace/gas chromatography-ion migration spectrometry (HS/GC-IMS) and solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) were used for identification and relative quantification. HS/GC-IMS identified 78 compounds, whereas SPME/GC-MS identified 53 compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA), clustering analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used as appropriate to investigate variations in volatile compounds among Pugionium samples and identify distinctive compounds. The first two principal components described 76.5% and 69.5% of the variance of the data from HS/GC-IMS and SPME/GC-MS, respectively. By clustering analysis, 4 kinds of Pugionium samples could be classified into four independent groups. The similarity between fresh Pugionium and natural dehydration Pugionium was higher than the other two dehydrated samples, indicating that natural dehydration can better preserve the flavor of Pugionium. Most aldehydes and alcohols increased following different dehydration procedures, whereas esters decreased, and the dehydrated Pugionium samples have more harmonious and less pungent aroma than the fresh Pugionium. PLS-DA model analysis revealed that the marker compounds (VIP scores > 1) discriminating the flavor of the four samples for HS/GC-IMS and SPME/GC-MS were 24 and 15 compounds, respectively, such as 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate, 1-butene-4-isothiocyanate and other isothiocyanates, 2-propanone, nonanal, gamma-butyrolactone, 2,3-butanediol, 3-methyl-2-butenenitrile, and pentanal. Analysis of volatile compounds might be useful for monitoring the quality of Pugionium and guiding the cooking methods and processing technologies. More study is required to discover if the various volatile flavor compounds have biological or physiological impacts on nutrition.