Friday, 30 September 2022

Crosstalk between xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibiting and cancer chemotherapeutic properties of comestible flavonoids- a comprehensive update

 The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 110, 109147, 2022

Gout is an inflammatory disease caused by metabolic disorder or genetic inheritance. People throughout the world are strongly dependent on ethnomedicine for the treatment of gout and some receive satisfactory curative treatment. The natural remedies as well as established drugs derived from natural sources or synthetically made exert their action by mechanisms that are closely associated with anticancer treatment mechanisms regarding inhibition of xanthine oxidase, feedback inhibition of de novo purine synthesis, depolymerization and disappearance of microtubule, inhibition of NF-ĸB activation, induction of TRAIL, promotion of apoptosis, and caspase activation and proteasome inhibition. Some anti-gout and anticancer novel compounds interact with same receptors for their action, e.g., colchicine and colchicine analogues. Dietary flavonoids, i.e., chrysin, kaempferol, quercetin, fisetin, pelargonidin, apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, isorhamnetin, phloretinetc etc. have comparable IC50 values with established anti-gout drug and effective against both cancer and gout. Moreover, a noticeable number of newer anticancer compounds have already been isolated from plants that have been using by local traditional healers and herbal practitioners to treat gout. Therefore, the anti-gout plants might have greater potentiality to become selective candidates for screening of newer anticancer leads.

Thursday, 22 September 2022

Polyphenols as possible alternative agents in chronic fatigue: a review

Phytochemistry Reviews, 2022

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a pathological state of extreme tiredness that lasts more than six months and may possess an impact on the social, emotional, or occupational functioning of an individual. CFS is characterized by profound disabling fatigue associated with infectious, rheumatological, and neurological symptoms. The current pharmacological treatment for CFS does not offer a complete cure for the disease, and none of the available treatments show promising results. The exact mechanism of the pathogenesis of the disease is still unknown, with current suggestions indicating the overlapping roles of the immune system, central nervous system, and neuroendocrine system. However, the pathological mechanism revolves around inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Polyphenols are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plant origin, with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and can exert protective activity against a whole range of disorders. The current review is aimed at highlighting the emerging role of polyphenols in CFS from both preclinical and clinical studies. Numerous agents of this class have shown promising results in different in vitro and in vivo models of chronic fatigue/CFS, predominantly by counteracting oxidative stress and the inflammatory cascade. The clinical data in this regard is still very limited and needs expanding through randomized, placebo-controlled studies to draw final conclusions on whether polyphenols may be a class of clinically effective nutraceuticals in patients with CFS.

Tuesday, 13 September 2022

Single-Cell Proteins Obtained by Circular Economy Intended as a Feed Ingredient in Aquaculture

 Foods 2022, 11(18), 2831

The constant increment in the world’s population leads to a parallel increase in the demand for food. This situation gives place the need for urgent development of alternative and sustainable resources to satisfy this nutritional requirement. Human nutrition is currently based on fisheries, which accounts for 50% of the fish production for human consumption, but also on agriculture, livestock, and aquaculture. Among them, aquaculture has been pointed out as a promising source of animal protein that can provide the population with high-quality protein food. This productive model has also gained attention due to its fast development. However, several aquaculture species require considerable amounts of fish protein to reach optimal growth rates, which represents its main drawback. Aquaculture needs to become sustainable using renewable source of nutrients with high contents of proteins to ensure properly fed animals. To achieve this goal, different approaches have been considered. In this sense, single-cell protein (SCP) products are a promising solution to replace fish protein from fishmeal. SCP flours based on microbes or algae biomass can be sustainably obtained. These microorganisms can be cultured by using residues supplied by other industries such as agriculture, food, or urban areas. Hence, the application of SCP for developing innovative fish meal offers a double solution by reducing the management of residues and by providing a sustainable source of proteins to aquaculture. However, the use of SCP as aquaculture feed also has some limitations, such as problems of digestibility, presence of toxins, or difficulty to scale-up the production process. In this work, we review the potential sources of SCP, their respective production processes, and their implementation in circular economy strategies, through the revalorization and exploitation of different residues for aquaculture feeding purposes. The data analyzed show the positive effects of SCP inclusion in diets and point to SCP meals as a sustainable feed system. However, new processes need to be exploited to improve yield. In that direction, the circular economy is a potential alternative to produce SCP at any time of the year and from various cost-free substrates, almost without a negative impact.