Monday, 28 September 2020

Edible flowers as functional raw materials: A review on anti-aging properties

 Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2020, 106, 30-47

DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2020.09.023


Background
Diet is a major determinant of aging and lifespan. Development and utilization of food resources with potential anti-aging activity have attracted increasing attention from researchers. Because of their peculiar flavour, aroma and colour, as well as enriched nutrients and phytochemicals, edible flowers have emerged as a new trend for human nutrition. More importantly, a growing body of evidence suggests flowers have potential effects against aging. However, these properties have yet to be systematically understood.

Scope and approach
In this review, we used comprehensive literature retrieval to summarize the major aspects of edible flowers’ anti-aging properties, including effects, active components, and applications. Relevant research articles published in English with no restrictions on publication date have been considered.

Key findings and conclusions
This review found evidence that edible flowers are promising raw materials for prevention or amelioration of skin aging, immunosenescence, neurodegeneration, and even extension of lifespan. Active ingredients in these flowers, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, polysaccharides, etc. may function through the inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and regulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IIS) pathway. In addition to their use in traditional food and medicine, some flower extracts or main components have been developed for health care food or skin care products. These findings suggest that despite the partial restriction of harvest, storage and safety, edible flowers are worthy of further investigation to promote healthy aging.



Friday, 25 September 2020

Macroalgae as a Source of Valuable Antimicrobial Compounds: Extraction and Applications

 Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 642

 DOI:10.3390/antibiotics9100642



In the last few decades, attention on new natural antimicrobial compounds has arisen due to a change in consumer preferences and the increase in the number of resistant microorganisms. Macroalgae play a special role in the pursuit of new active molecules as they have been traditionally consumed and are known for their chemical and nutritional composition and their biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. Among the bioactive molecules of algae, proteins and peptides, polysaccharides, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments can be highlighted. However, for the complete obtaining and incorporation of these molecules, it is essential to achieve easy, profitable and sustainable recovery of these compounds. For this purpose, novel liquid–liquid and solid–liquid extraction techniques have been studied, such as supercritical, ultrasound, microwave, enzymatic, high pressure, accelerated solvent and intensity pulsed electric fields extraction techniques. Moreover, different applications have been proposed for these compounds, such as preservatives in the food or cosmetic industries, as antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry, as antibiofilm, antifouling, coating in active packaging, prebiotics or in nanoparticles. This review presents the main antimicrobial potential of macroalgae, their specific bioactive compounds and novel green extraction technologies to efficiently extract them, with emphasis on the antibacterial and antifungal data and their applications.

Saturday, 19 September 2020

Use of Spectroscopic Techniques to Monitor Changes in Food Quality during Application of Natural Preservatives: A Review

 Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 882

DOI:10.3390/antiox9090882


Consumer demand for food of high quality has driven research for alternative methods of food preservation on the one hand, and the development of new and rapid quality assessment techniques on the other hand. Recently, there has been a growing need and interest in healthier food products, which has led to an increased interest in natural preservatives, such as essential oils, plant extracts, and edible films and coatings. Several studies have shown the potential of using biopreservation, natural antimicrobials, and antioxidant agents in place of other processing and preservation techniques (e.g., thermal and non-thermal treatments, freezing, or synthetic chemicals). Changes in food quality induced by the application of natural preservatives have been commonly evaluated using a range of traditional methods, including microbiology, sensory, and physicochemical measurements. Several spectroscopic techniques have been proposed as promising alternatives to the traditional time-consuming and destructive methods. This review will provide an overview of recent studies and highlight the potential of spectroscopic techniques to evaluate quality changes in food products following the application of natural preservatives.

Friday, 18 September 2020

Valorization of by-products from olive oil industry and added-value applications for innovative functional foods

 Food Research International, 2020, 137, 109683

DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109683


Background
In the last years, the consumption of olive oil has experienced a sharp rise due to its organoleptic and healthy properties and with this the wastes and by-products derived from the olive production and the olive oil industry have also increased causing important environmental and economic issues. However, the high content in bioactive compounds of these wastes and by-products makes that its recovery is both a great challenge and an excellent opportunity for the olive oil sector.

Aim of the review
This review encompasses the more outstanding aspects related to the advances achieved until date in the olive oil by-products valorisation and added-value applications for innovative functional foods.

Conclusion
Taking into account the information reported in this manuscript, the development of a multiproduct biorefinery in cascade using eco-friendly technologies interchangable seems a suitable stratety to obtaining high added value compounds from olive oil by-products with applications in the field of innovative functional foods. In addition, this would allow an integral valorization of these residues enhancing the profitability of the olive oil industry. On the other hand, the biocompounds fom olive oil by-products have been described by their interesting bioactivities with beneficial properties for the consumers’ health; therefore, their incorporation into the formulation of functional foods opens new possibilities in the field of innovative foods.

Future perspective
Despite the studies descibed in the literature, more research on the healthy properties of the recovered compounds and their interactions with food components is key to allow their reintegration in the food chain and therefore, the removal of the olive oil by-products.


Thursday, 17 September 2020

Non-invasive biomonitoring of organic pollutants using feather samples in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

 Environmental Pollution, 2020, 267, 115672

DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115672


A large portion of organic pollutants (OPs) represent a potential hazard to humans and living beings due to their toxic properties. For several years, birds have been used as biomonitor species of environmental pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) were assessed in body feather samples of 71 feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) collected from Asturias and Galicia (NW Spain). The percentage of detection for all chemical groups were above 90% in studied birds. The general pattern was dominated by PAHs (mean value ± standard deviation (SD) 32 ± 15 ng/g) followed by OCPs (3.8 ± 1.1 ng/g), PYRs (3.4 ± 3.8 ng/g), PCBs (1.6 ± 1.0 ng/g), OPPs (1.3 ± 0.70 ng/g) and PBDEs (0.80 ± 0.30 ng/g). Significant differences were observed between age, location and gender suggesting different sources of exposure and accumulation pathways.



Thursday, 3 September 2020

Biological Evaluation, DFT Calculations and Molecular Docking Studies on the Antidepressant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. Compounds

 Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(9), 232

https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13090232


Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. is commonly used in folk medicine against various disorders. The present study investigated the antidepressant and cytotoxicity activity of methanol extract of C. pectinata (MECP) along with quantitative phytochemical analysis by GC-MS method. Here, the GC-MS study of MECP presented 41 compounds, among which most were fatty acids, esters, terpenoids and oximes. The antidepressant activity was assessed by the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) models. In contrast, MECP (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant and dose-dependent manner reduction in immobility comparable with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and phenelzine (20 mg/kg). MECP showed a weak toxicity level in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay (ED50: 358.65 µg/mL) comparable to the standard drug vincristine sulfate (ED50: 2.39 µg/mL). Three compounds from the GC-MS study were subjected to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, where only cyclopentadecanone oxime showed positive and negative active binding sites. Cyclopentadecanone oxime also showed a good binding interaction in suppressing depression disorders by blocking monoamine oxidase and serotonin receptors with better pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Overall, the MECP exhibited a significant antidepressant activity with moderate toxicity, which required further advance studies to identify the mechanism.

Wednesday, 2 September 2020

Special Issue about the “Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Agriculture”

 

For the past few years, the increasing world population has given place to an increase in the demand for food products.

A large number of variables (agronomic, climatic, political, economic, etc.) can influence on agricultural production. All these features give rise to a large database that can be used to develop tools aimed at improving the management practices, production, harvesting, processing, conservation, selling and subsequent waste treatment that could solve the future challenges related to the climate variation, proliferation of diseases, crops improve and supply.

These tools, from the simplest (regression) to the most complex (neural networks, vector support machines, among others) allow to expand the existing knowledge to the entire agricultural process (from cradle to cradle).

The aim of this Special Issue about the “Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Agriculture” is to collect the most recent research using any kind of AI model related (but not limited) to: machine learning, remote sensing, machine vision, modelling, prediction, optimization, decision support, food authenticity, big data, blockchain, etc.

You are welcome to send research articles, reviews, communications and concept papers. Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com

Keywords

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Machine learning
  • Deep learning
  • Image Analysis/Processing
  • Computer Vision
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Big Data/Cloud Computing
  • Remote Sensing
  • Modelling/Prediction/Optimization
  • Decision support

Tuesday, 1 September 2020

Jesús Simal, Académico de Número en la Real Academia de Farmacia de Galicia

 



El coordinador del grupo AA1, Jesús Simal Gándara, entrará a formar parte de la Real Academia de Farmacia de Galicia, RAFG, como miembro numerario. Centrará su discurso en la sostenibilidad del sistema de producción y consumo de alimentos -La ceremonia, pendiente del Covid-19.

1-3-Dichloropropene 2030 Agenda priorities Abribone Particles Accumulation Acid Soils Acidification Activated Carbon Active ingredients Acuicultura Adsorption Adulteration Aeration Aerobiology Aggregation Agricultural Residue Agro-industrial waste Agronomic performance Agrostis capillaris Air temperature Airborne Alcohols Aldehyde Algae Alkaline Hydrolysis Alkylamines Allelochemical stress Allergy Aluminium Alzheimer's Disease Amendment Amino acid and purine biosynthesis Amphibolite Amylases Analysis Anionic Amphiphiles AnionsMetals ANN Anoma Anthocyanins Anti-aging Anti-cancer activity Antidepressant Antimicrobial Antimicrobial applications Antimicrobial compounds Antioxidants Antioxidants Activity Antiradical Activity Antitumorigenic activity Antiviral Apples Applications AQUA-CIBUS Aqueous solution Arabidopsis thaliana Arbequina ARIMA Aroma Aromatic compounds Aromatic plants Arsenic Artificial Neural Networks Ascorbic acid Ashes Atmospheric Pollution Authentication Autohydrolysis Auxins Availability Axisymetric Models Bacillus subtilis Bacterial growth Bacteriocin Bare fallow soils Barley straw Barrels Batch Beer Bentonite Berry Bilinear matrix Bioactive compounds Bioactive Food Components Bioactive substances Bioactivities Bioavailability Biochar Bioethanol Biofilm Biological indicator Biomarkers Biomonitoring Biorefinery Biosorbent Biotransformation Black Pepper Blockchain Technology Blueberry Body weight Boscalid Botrycides Botrytis cinerea Brassica juncea Brewery wastes Brown macroalgae BTEX Bullet corrosion Butter fat By-products Cadmium Caffeic Acid Calcium Candelilla Candidate gene Carbon isotope discrimination Carburan Catechin-rich extract Cattle Slurry Cell cycle Celta pig breed Characterization Cheese whey Chemical composition Chemical equilibrium Chemometrics Chemoresistance Chestnuts Chloropicrin Chlorteracycline Cholinesterases Chorizo Chromatography Chromium Circular economy Clasification Climate change Climate impact CMC Cobalt Colloids Color Column experiments Competitive sorption Compost Compounds Conformational changes Conjoint analysis Continuous fermentation Control Controlled deficit irrigation Cooking methods Copper Corn breeding Corn cob Corn stover Cornicabra Cortical Neurons Corticosteroids Corticosterone Cortisol Cosmetics Cow Milk Crop Protection Crushed Mussel Shell cucurbit[7]uril cucurbituril Curing Cycas pectinata Cyclic voltammetry Cyclodextrins Cyclopentadecanone Cytotoxicity Dactylis glomerata Data Acquisition and Management Data analysis Decomposition Decontamination Degradation Dehydrogenase activity Denitrosation Density Desorption DFT calculations Diabetes mellitus Dietary polyphenols Dinamic Surface Tension Discharge prediction Disease prevention Dissipation Dithiocarbamates Doxycycline Dry fruit Dry-cured Drying DTCs Edible films Edible flowers Ehrlich pathway Encapsulation Enrichment factors Enterococcus faecium Enzymatic hydrolysis Enzymatic saccharification ErbB2 Ergosterol biosynthesis Esencial Oil Essential oils Ethanol Ethnobotanic Ethylene Ethylenethiourea Eucalyptus camaldulensis EVOO EVOO applications EVOO quality EVOOs Extra Virgin Olive Oil Extraction Extraction Optimization Extraction techniques Fast growing biomass Fat healthiness Fat oxidation Fatty Acids Faults FE-SEM/EDS Feathers Fed-batch fermentation Fed-batch SSF Fed-batch system Feed intake Feluric Acid Feluroyl esterase Fenhexamid Ferhexamid Fermentation Ferulic acid Feruloyl Feruloyl esterase Fingerprint Firing range soils Fish oil Flavanols Flavor Flowering delay Fluorescence Fluoride Fluorine Focus group Folin-Ciocalteuassay Food additives Food analysis Food authentication Food Authenticity Food by-products Food composition Food fingerprinting Food intake-related public risks Food Quality Food Supply Chain Food sustainability Food systems Food Traceability Foods Forest Forest Soils Formación Fortification Fortified Wines Fourier transform infrared Fractionation Fraxinus Frog Frozen storage Frugal-innovation Fucoxanthin Fuidized bed reactor Fullerene Functional Enzymes Functional Food Fungal Spores Fungicide Fungicides Furfural Galicia Galician virgin olive oils Garlic Garnacha Tintorera Gastrointestinal tract GC GC/MS Gelation Generic diversity Genetic variation Geothermal systems Germination Germplasm charaterization Glassy network Glucomannan Gold nanoparticles Gourmet Graciano Granite Granite powder Granitic Material Grape juice Grapes Grasshopper Effect Gravitropism Green synthesis Growth Guava HAE Hair Health benefits Heat-Assited Extraction Heavy Metals Helath claim Hemicelluloses Hemp waste Heterocyclic aromatic amines High hydrostatic pressure High pressure High solids loading Histeresys index Histolocalization Hordeum vulgar HPLC HPLC-DAD HPLC-FLD HPLC-MS/MS HPLC/MS HR-TEM/EDS Humid acid Hyaluronic acid Hydrogeology Hydrolysis Hydroxycinnamic acid Hydroxylpropyl-beta-cyclodextrins Hyperspectral imaging immobilization In vitro Industrial applications Industrial level Innovative functional foods Instrumental analysis Ionic Liquids Iron Job Opportunities Jornadas Kale Keroxim Kinematic viscosity Kinetics Konjac glucomannan Laboratory column Lactic acid Lactic acid bacteria Land use LDT Lead Leaf water relations Lenga temperate forests Liberation Lignin Ligustrum Lime pretreatment Linear Discriminant Analysis Lipid oxidation Lipolysis Lipoxygenase Liqueurs Long-term fertilization Lotka-Volterra Low toxicity Maceration Machine learning Macroalgae Macroalgae applications Magnesium Maize populations Major Depressive Disorder MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS Mancozeb MAO Marcozeb Marinades Measures and indicators Meat Meat Quality Medicinal plant Mediterranean diet Membrane filtration Mepanipyrim Mercury Metabolism Metabolite Metabolites Metabolomics Metal Metal availability Metal fractionation Metalaxyl Meteorology Methyl isothiocyanate Metrafenone Micelles Microalgae Microbiota Microemulsions Microscopy Microtubules Mine Mine soil Mine tailing Mode of Action Modelisation Molecular docking Monoamine Oxidase MS MS/MS Multidrug resistance Multiple chemicals Multiproduct biorefinery Multivariate analysis Muscle foods Mussel Mussel shell Mustard plants Nanocoating Nanoparticle Nanowhisker NAO index Natural Colorants Natural sources Neonates Neonicitinoids Neurodegenerative Disorders Neuroprotection Neurotoxins Nickel NIR Nisin Nitric Oxide Nitrosomercaptopyridine NO Non-linear processes Noticias Novel technologies NPK Fertilizers Nutraceulticals Nutrients Oak ash Oak species Oat straw OAV Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves OCPs Odorants Odour Activity Value Ole e 1 Olea Oleaceae Olive Co-crushing Olive Oil Olive oil by-products OncomiR OPEs OPPs OPs Optimization Organic amendment Organic carbon Organic matter Organic pollutants Ourense Oxidation Oxidative damage Oxidative phase Oximes Oxytetracycline Ozone p-hydroxybenzoic acid PAHs Paper Industry Parkinson's Disease Pastureland Soils Pathogenic bacteria PBDEs PBDs PCBs PCDDs PCDFs PDO Pellets Percolation Perlite waste addition Pest Management Protocols Pesticide Pets pH pH-spectra Phenolic and aromatic compounds Phenolic Compounds Phenolics Phenology Phenotyping Phosphate Phosphorus Phosphorus adsorption Phosphorus desorption Physical protection Physiological responses Phytochemicals Phytopigments Phytostabilization Phytotoxic effects Phytotoxicity Picual Pig Pig genotypes Pig Stress Pigeon Piglets Pine bark Pine Sawdust Pinus sylvestris Pistachia vera Placenta Plant cell walls Plant production Plantago Plasma Pollen Polluted Soils Polluted Water Pollution Polymer Polyphenols Post-harvest drying Potato Prairie Prebiotic activity Precipitation Prediction Prenatal Preservation Prevention Probiotics Process optimization Production Profiling Properties Proteases protected denomination of origin Proteome profile Proteomics Public health Purification Putative transcription factors Pyritic material PYRs Quality-related Indices Quantification Racked bed reactor Rain Rainfastness Raman Random forest Rank annihilation factor analysis Raw Fish Oil Reaction kinetics modelling Reactor Realkalization Red Rubin Basil Red Wines Redes de Investigación Reinforced Wines Remediation Residues Resistance Response surface methodology Retaining capacity Retention Reuse Rheological properties Ripening temperature RISEGAL Risk assessment Risk Periodos River River bed sediments RMN Root growth Roots Rosaceae family RSM S-nitrosothiol Salting intensity Saponification Screening methods SDS SDS-PAGE Secondary Metabolites Seedling Seminarios Sensory analysis Sensory attributes Sepia Ink Sequential extraction Serotonin Sesamia nonagrioides Settling pond Shelf-life Shelterwood-cut silvicultural system Shooting range Short chain fatty acids Signalling pathways Silage Single extraction Slaughterhouse Large Time Soil Soil aggregates Soil Amendment Soil impact Soil pollution Soil remediation Soil residues Soil structure Soils Solanum tuberosum Solid-state fermentation Solvent Extraction Sorption Soybean oil Spectrometry Spectroscopy Speed of Sound Spirits SSR markers Stability Stress response Styrene Subcutaneous ham fat Subcutaneous pig back-fat Sulfamethoxazole Sulfur-containing compounds Support vector machine Surface Surface Tension Surfactants Sustainability Sustainable Adsorbents Sustainable Development Sustainable use of natural resources SWAdSV Sweet Wines Swertia chirata Taladros Tarbush Taste Technosol Tempranillo Tenacity Terra preta do índio Tetraciclyne Thermal gelation profiles Thermal springs Throughfall Tiamulin TOF-SIMS Toro Appellation of Origin Total aliphatic hydrocarbons Toxic cocktail effects Toxicity Traditional Smoked Foods Traditionally used plants trans-Caryophyllene Transcriptomics Transport Transport experiment Tree vegetation Trimethoprim Tropical soils Tumor suppressor miR Underground waters University of Vigo Urine UV-Vis spectroscopy Vaccinium corymbosum Vacuum packaging Valorization Vanadium Variedades tolerantes Vinclozolin Vine trimming shoot Vineyard Virgin Olive Oils Virus Viscosity Vitamin Volatile Volatile Compounds Voltímetro Wash-off Waste reduction Wastes Wastewater Water deficit Water efficiency Water pollution Water quality Water temperature Weakly deacetylation Weather Webinar Wells Wheat straw Whey Wine Wine aging Wine Quality Wine-making Practices Winemaking Process Withered inflorescences Wood Wood Ash Xylitol Xylooligosaccharides Xylose Zea mays Zinc β-Lactoglobulin