The formation of inclusion complexes between alkylsulfonate guests and a cationic pillararene receptor in water was investigated by NMR and ITC techniques. The results show the formation of host-guest complexes stabilized by electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic effects with binding constants for the guest with higher hydrophobic character. Structurally, the alkyl chain of the guest is included in the hydrophobic aromatic cavity of the macrocycle while the sulfonate groups are held in the multicationic portal by ionic interactions.
Tuesday, 28 December 2021
Thursday, 16 December 2021
Delineation of molecular interactions of plant growth promoting bacteria induced β-1,3-glucanases and guanosine triphosphate ligand for antifungal response in rice: a molecular dynamics approach
The plant growth is influenced by multiple interactions with biotic (microbial) and abiotic components in their surroundings. These microbial interactions have both positive and negative effects on plant. Plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPR) interaction could result in positive growth under normal as well as in stress conditions.
Here, we have screened two PGPR’s and determined their potential in induction of specific gene in host plant to overcome the adverse effect of biotic stress caused by Magnaporthe grisea, a fungal pathogen that cause blast in rice. We demonstrated the glucanase protein mode of action by performing comparative modeling and molecular docking of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) ligand with the protein. Besides, molecular dynamic simulations have been performed to understand the behavior of the glucanase-GTP complex.
The results clearly showed that selected PGPR was better able to induce modification in host plant at morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular level by activating the expression of β-1,3-glucanases gene in infected host plant. The docking results indicated that Tyr75, Arg256, Gly258, and Ser223 of glucanase formed four crucial hydrogen bonds with the GTP, while, only Val220 found to form hydrophobic contact with ligand.
The PGPR able to induce β-1,3-glucanases gene in host plant upon pathogenic interaction and β-1,3-glucanases form complex with GTP by hydrophilic interaction for induction of defense cascade for acquiring resistance against Magnaporthe grisea.
Saturday, 11 December 2021
Molecular characterization and genetic diversity studies of Indian soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars using SSR markers
The genetic base of soybean cultivars in India has been reported to be extremely narrow, due to repeated use of few selected and elite genotypes as parents in the breeding programmes. This ultimately led to the reduction of genetic variability among existing soybean cultivars and stagnation in crop yield. Thus in order to enhance production and productivity of soybean, broadening of genetic base and exploring untapped valuable genetic diversity has become quite indispensable. This could be successfully accomplished through molecular characterization of soybean genotypes using various DNA based markers. Hence, an attempt was made to study the molecular divergence and relatedness among 29 genotypes of soybean using SSR markers.
Methods and results
A total of 35 SSR primers were deployed to study the genetic divergence among 29 genotypes of soybean. Among them, 14 primer pairs were found to be polymorphic producing a total of 34 polymorphic alleles; and the allele number for each locus ranged from two to four with an average of 2.43 alleles per primer pair. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSRs ranged from 0.064 to 0.689 with an average of 0.331. The dendrogram constructed based on dissimilarity indices clustered the 29 genotypes into two major groups and four sub-groups. Similarly, principal coordinate analysis grouped the genotypes into four major groups that exactly corresponded to the clustering of genotypes among four sub-groups of dendrogram. Besides, the study has reported eight unique and two rare alleles that could be potentially utilized for genetic purity analysis and cultivar identification in soybean.
In the present investigation, two major clusters were reported and grouping of large number of genotypes in each cluster indicated high degree of genetic resemblance and narrow genetic base among the genotypes used in the study. With respect to the primers used in the study, the values of PIC and other related parameters revealed that the selected SSR markers are moderately informative and could be potentially utilized for diversity analysis of soybean. The clustering pattern of dendrogram constructed based on SSR loci profile displayed good agreement with the cultivar’s pedigree information. High level of genetic similarity observed among the genotypes from the present study necessitates the inclusion of wild relatives, land races and traditional cultivars in future soybean breeding programmes to widen the crop gene pool. Thus, hybridization among diverse gene pool could result in more heterotic combinations ultimately enhancing genetic gain, crop yield and resistance to various stress factors.