Wednesday, 18 November 2020

HCR 2020

Cuatro investigadores vinculados a nuestro grupo de investigación [AA1] (Grupo de Investigaciones Agro-ambientales y Alimentarias de la Universidad de Vigo)   -Jesús Simal, Francisco J. Barba, Seid Mahdi Jafari e Jian Bo Xiao - han sido reconocidos como HCR (High Cited Researcher) por Clarivate.

Esta mención como HCR implica un reconocimiento a los investigadores como los más influyentes del mundo, como lo demuestra la producción de varios artículos altamente citados citados que se ubican en el primer percentil según las citas por campo en el último decenio (2011-2020) según Web of Science™.

Este hecho situaría a la Universidade de Vigo en el terceiro lugar en el ranking correspondiente, solamente por detrás de la Universidad de Barcelona, la Universidad de Granada, y pondría al grupo de investigación como uno de los referentes en materia de investigaciones agroalimentarias.

Recordemos que la Universidad de Vigo, también aparece en el Ranking de Shanghai, dentro del apartado de Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos (en el que se encuentra encuadrada la actividad investigadora de nuestro grupo) en el rango 51-75 del mundo. Así la Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos es el ámbito de conocimiento mejor situado en todo el Sistema Universitario de Galicia este año 2020.

Thursday, 22 October 2020

Up4Health



El proyecto Europeo Up4Health se basa en el aprovechamiento de biomasa generada en procesos que se llevan a cabo en la industria, por ejemplo en bodegas, almazaras, o plantas de procesamiento de frutos secos, de los que se obtienen ingredientes funcionales que pueden usarse en otras industrias de diversa índole, como pueden ser la alimentaria, nutracéutica o cosmética.

En Up4Health, además de aprovechar esta materia prima residual rica en compuestos bioactivos, se optimiza la cadena de valor de las industrias productivas del sector alimenticio persiguiendo el objetivo de “residuo cero”, lo que hace que además de ser un proyecto innovador, sea sostenible.

Los ingredientes funcionales de los que hablamos son los siguientes: agua de fruta natural rica en polifenoles, fibra dietética rica en polifenoles, extractos oleosos naturales de frutas y xilooligosacáridos prebióticos. Las aplicaciones en las que se podrán utilizar estos compuestos bioactivos van desde los alimentos funcionales, como productos cárnicos, barritas snack saludables, alimentos suaves para personas mayores, soluciones bebibles en forma de gel, aceite de oliva, bebidas naturales, yogurt, hasta los suplementos nutracéuticos e incluso los cosméticos.

En este proyecto, financiado por el programa H2020, colaboran nueve organizaciones de cinco países distintos  se realiza en colaboración con la empresa AMEREX, que aplicará diversos polifenoles extraídos de harina de fibra de oliva y uva en algunos productos de la industria alimentaria, con el objetivo de retrasar los procesos oxidativos y aumentar la vida útil del producto final.

(blog del proyecto aqui)



Wednesday, 7 October 2020

Jesús Simal, medalla de la Real Academia Galega de Ciencias



Una das Medallas de Investigación que a Real Academia Galega de Ciencias terá como destinatario o coordinador do grupo AA1,  Jesús Simal, en particular na sección de Química e Xeoloxía. A entrega das medallas será lugar o día 8 de octubre no Colexio de Fonseca (USC) 

Poderá seguirse a retransmisión da entrega de premios en directo a través de @RAGalegaCiencia en Twiter ou ben a través de este enlace


Enlaces de Prensa:

Friday, 2 October 2020

Extraction, Properties, and Applications of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from Microalgae

 Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2020, 26, 1929-1950

DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200403172206


With the increase in the global population, getting new sources of food is essential. One of the solutions can be found in the oceans due to algae. Microalgae are aquatic photosynthetic organisms used mainly due to their variety of bioactive compounds. The consumption of microalgae has been carried out for centuries and is recommended by organizations, such as OMS and FAO, due to its nutritional value and its properties. Based on the existing literature, there is substantial evidence of the nutritional quality of the algae as well as their functional elements. However, much quantification is still necessary, as well as studying possible adverse effects. The present review describes the compounds of alimentary interest present in these algae as well as different extraction techniques assisted by different energetic mechanisms (such as heat, supercritical-fluid, microwave, ultrasound, enzymes, electric field, high hydrostatic pressure, among others). The most challenging and crucial issues are reducing microalgae growth cost and optimizing extraction techniques. This review aimed a better understanding of the uses of microalgae for new researches in nutrition. Since the use of microalgae is still a field in which there is much to discover, it is likely that more benefits will be found in its consumption.


Thursday, 1 October 2020

Main bioactive phenolic compounds in marine algae and their mechanisms of action supporting potential health benefits

 Food Chemistry, 2020, 341, 128262

DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128262


Given the growing tendency of consumers to choose products with natural ingredients, food industries have directed scientific research in this direction. In this regard, algae are an attractive option for the research, since they can synthesize a group of secondary metabolites, called phenolic compounds, associated with really promising properties and bioactivities. The objective of this work was to classify the major phenolic compounds, compare the effectiveness of the different extractive techniques used for their extraction, from traditional systems (like heat assisted extraction) to the most advance ones (such as ultrasound, microwave or supercritical fluid extraction); the available methods for identification and quantification; the stability of the enriched extract in phenolic compounds and the main bioactivities described for these secondary metabolites, to offer an overview of the situation to consider if it is possible and/or convenient an orientation of phenolic compounds from algae towards an industrial application.



Monday, 28 September 2020

Edible flowers as functional raw materials: A review on anti-aging properties

 Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2020, 106, 30-47

DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2020.09.023


Background
Diet is a major determinant of aging and lifespan. Development and utilization of food resources with potential anti-aging activity have attracted increasing attention from researchers. Because of their peculiar flavour, aroma and colour, as well as enriched nutrients and phytochemicals, edible flowers have emerged as a new trend for human nutrition. More importantly, a growing body of evidence suggests flowers have potential effects against aging. However, these properties have yet to be systematically understood.

Scope and approach
In this review, we used comprehensive literature retrieval to summarize the major aspects of edible flowers’ anti-aging properties, including effects, active components, and applications. Relevant research articles published in English with no restrictions on publication date have been considered.

Key findings and conclusions
This review found evidence that edible flowers are promising raw materials for prevention or amelioration of skin aging, immunosenescence, neurodegeneration, and even extension of lifespan. Active ingredients in these flowers, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, polysaccharides, etc. may function through the inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and regulation of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IIS) pathway. In addition to their use in traditional food and medicine, some flower extracts or main components have been developed for health care food or skin care products. These findings suggest that despite the partial restriction of harvest, storage and safety, edible flowers are worthy of further investigation to promote healthy aging.



Friday, 25 September 2020

Macroalgae as a Source of Valuable Antimicrobial Compounds: Extraction and Applications

 Antibiotics 2020, 9(10), 642

 DOI:10.3390/antibiotics9100642



In the last few decades, attention on new natural antimicrobial compounds has arisen due to a change in consumer preferences and the increase in the number of resistant microorganisms. Macroalgae play a special role in the pursuit of new active molecules as they have been traditionally consumed and are known for their chemical and nutritional composition and their biological properties, including antimicrobial activity. Among the bioactive molecules of algae, proteins and peptides, polysaccharides, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments can be highlighted. However, for the complete obtaining and incorporation of these molecules, it is essential to achieve easy, profitable and sustainable recovery of these compounds. For this purpose, novel liquid–liquid and solid–liquid extraction techniques have been studied, such as supercritical, ultrasound, microwave, enzymatic, high pressure, accelerated solvent and intensity pulsed electric fields extraction techniques. Moreover, different applications have been proposed for these compounds, such as preservatives in the food or cosmetic industries, as antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry, as antibiofilm, antifouling, coating in active packaging, prebiotics or in nanoparticles. This review presents the main antimicrobial potential of macroalgae, their specific bioactive compounds and novel green extraction technologies to efficiently extract them, with emphasis on the antibacterial and antifungal data and their applications.

Saturday, 19 September 2020

Use of Spectroscopic Techniques to Monitor Changes in Food Quality during Application of Natural Preservatives: A Review

 Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 882

DOI:10.3390/antiox9090882


Consumer demand for food of high quality has driven research for alternative methods of food preservation on the one hand, and the development of new and rapid quality assessment techniques on the other hand. Recently, there has been a growing need and interest in healthier food products, which has led to an increased interest in natural preservatives, such as essential oils, plant extracts, and edible films and coatings. Several studies have shown the potential of using biopreservation, natural antimicrobials, and antioxidant agents in place of other processing and preservation techniques (e.g., thermal and non-thermal treatments, freezing, or synthetic chemicals). Changes in food quality induced by the application of natural preservatives have been commonly evaluated using a range of traditional methods, including microbiology, sensory, and physicochemical measurements. Several spectroscopic techniques have been proposed as promising alternatives to the traditional time-consuming and destructive methods. This review will provide an overview of recent studies and highlight the potential of spectroscopic techniques to evaluate quality changes in food products following the application of natural preservatives.

Friday, 18 September 2020

Valorization of by-products from olive oil industry and added-value applications for innovative functional foods

 Food Research International, 2020, 137, 109683

DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109683


Background
In the last years, the consumption of olive oil has experienced a sharp rise due to its organoleptic and healthy properties and with this the wastes and by-products derived from the olive production and the olive oil industry have also increased causing important environmental and economic issues. However, the high content in bioactive compounds of these wastes and by-products makes that its recovery is both a great challenge and an excellent opportunity for the olive oil sector.

Aim of the review
This review encompasses the more outstanding aspects related to the advances achieved until date in the olive oil by-products valorisation and added-value applications for innovative functional foods.

Conclusion
Taking into account the information reported in this manuscript, the development of a multiproduct biorefinery in cascade using eco-friendly technologies interchangable seems a suitable stratety to obtaining high added value compounds from olive oil by-products with applications in the field of innovative functional foods. In addition, this would allow an integral valorization of these residues enhancing the profitability of the olive oil industry. On the other hand, the biocompounds fom olive oil by-products have been described by their interesting bioactivities with beneficial properties for the consumers’ health; therefore, their incorporation into the formulation of functional foods opens new possibilities in the field of innovative foods.

Future perspective
Despite the studies descibed in the literature, more research on the healthy properties of the recovered compounds and their interactions with food components is key to allow their reintegration in the food chain and therefore, the removal of the olive oil by-products.


Thursday, 17 September 2020

Non-invasive biomonitoring of organic pollutants using feather samples in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

 Environmental Pollution, 2020, 267, 115672

DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115672


A large portion of organic pollutants (OPs) represent a potential hazard to humans and living beings due to their toxic properties. For several years, birds have been used as biomonitor species of environmental pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) were assessed in body feather samples of 71 feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) collected from Asturias and Galicia (NW Spain). The percentage of detection for all chemical groups were above 90% in studied birds. The general pattern was dominated by PAHs (mean value ± standard deviation (SD) 32 ± 15 ng/g) followed by OCPs (3.8 ± 1.1 ng/g), PYRs (3.4 ± 3.8 ng/g), PCBs (1.6 ± 1.0 ng/g), OPPs (1.3 ± 0.70 ng/g) and PBDEs (0.80 ± 0.30 ng/g). Significant differences were observed between age, location and gender suggesting different sources of exposure and accumulation pathways.



Thursday, 3 September 2020

Biological Evaluation, DFT Calculations and Molecular Docking Studies on the Antidepressant and Cytotoxicity Activities of Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. Compounds

 Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(9), 232

https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13090232


Cycas pectinata Buch.-Ham. is commonly used in folk medicine against various disorders. The present study investigated the antidepressant and cytotoxicity activity of methanol extract of C. pectinata (MECP) along with quantitative phytochemical analysis by GC-MS method. Here, the GC-MS study of MECP presented 41 compounds, among which most were fatty acids, esters, terpenoids and oximes. The antidepressant activity was assessed by the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) models. In contrast, MECP (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant and dose-dependent manner reduction in immobility comparable with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and phenelzine (20 mg/kg). MECP showed a weak toxicity level in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay (ED50: 358.65 µg/mL) comparable to the standard drug vincristine sulfate (ED50: 2.39 µg/mL). Three compounds from the GC-MS study were subjected to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, where only cyclopentadecanone oxime showed positive and negative active binding sites. Cyclopentadecanone oxime also showed a good binding interaction in suppressing depression disorders by blocking monoamine oxidase and serotonin receptors with better pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Overall, the MECP exhibited a significant antidepressant activity with moderate toxicity, which required further advance studies to identify the mechanism.

Wednesday, 2 September 2020

Special Issue about the “Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Agriculture”

 

For the past few years, the increasing world population has given place to an increase in the demand for food products.

A large number of variables (agronomic, climatic, political, economic, etc.) can influence on agricultural production. All these features give rise to a large database that can be used to develop tools aimed at improving the management practices, production, harvesting, processing, conservation, selling and subsequent waste treatment that could solve the future challenges related to the climate variation, proliferation of diseases, crops improve and supply.

These tools, from the simplest (regression) to the most complex (neural networks, vector support machines, among others) allow to expand the existing knowledge to the entire agricultural process (from cradle to cradle).

The aim of this Special Issue about the “Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Agriculture” is to collect the most recent research using any kind of AI model related (but not limited) to: machine learning, remote sensing, machine vision, modelling, prediction, optimization, decision support, food authenticity, big data, blockchain, etc.

You are welcome to send research articles, reviews, communications and concept papers. Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com

Keywords

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Machine learning
  • Deep learning
  • Image Analysis/Processing
  • Computer Vision
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Big Data/Cloud Computing
  • Remote Sensing
  • Modelling/Prediction/Optimization
  • Decision support

Tuesday, 1 September 2020

Jesús Simal, Académico de Número en la Real Academia de Farmacia de Galicia

 



El coordinador del grupo AA1, Jesús Simal Gándara, entrará a formar parte de la Real Academia de Farmacia de Galicia, RAFG, como miembro numerario. Centrará su discurso en la sostenibilidad del sistema de producción y consumo de alimentos -La ceremonia, pendiente del Covid-19.

Monday, 31 August 2020

Special Issue on “The Application of Artificial Intelligent in Hydrology”


Over the last few decades, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) has experienced a high increase in a wide variety of research fields. This kind of models are characterized as powerful tools to obtain information which would otherwise be very complicated or impossible to get. AI models, together with the large amount of hydrologycal data currently available, provide the ideal conditions to create tools aimed at managing water supply, predicting flood and drought, monitoring water quality, optimizing irrigation schemes, managing dams, determining carbonate saturation, evaluating the sedimentation process, and modeling the contaminant transport, among others. All the AI models, from the simplest to the most complex, such as random forest or neural networks, therefore allow expanding the existing knowledge about the complex water system.

The aim of this Special Issue on “The Application of Artificial Intelligent in Hydrology” is to present the state-of-the-art related (but not limited) to the study of movements, distribution, and management of water in nature.

We invite authors to submit research articles, reviews, communications, and concept papers that demonstrate the high potential of artificial intelligence in the hydrological field.

Keywords

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Machine learning
  • Big data/Cloud computing
  • Monitoring/Modelling/Prediction/Optimization
  • Flow prediction
  • Water quality
  • Water supply
  • Management
  • Risk assessment
  • Multidisciplinary research
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com.

Sunday, 30 August 2020

Management of Wine Aroma Compounds: Principal Basis and Future Perspectives

Book Chapter in: 

Winemaking - Stabilization, Aging Chemistry and Biochemistry

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.92973


Wine’s aroma is defined by volatile and non-volatile compounds that contribute to its make-up. The complex variety of volatile compounds, coming from grapes, interact with other non-volatile substances of the wine as precursors of wine’s aroma, known as primary aromas, which give the aroma of the young wine. The volatile compounds present in the skin and in the grape juice change according to the grape variety. Most of wine volatile compounds responsible for aroma are linked to sugars and they initially form odorless glycosides. Through the process of hydrolysis, they are reverted into an aromatic form. Chemical reactions among these compounds occur during the fermentation and in the first months of a wine’s existence, triggering fast and multiple modifications in wine’s aroma at this point. As wine ages and matures, changes and development in aroma will continue to take place but at a slower and more gradual pace. The study of the compounds responsible for aroma and flavor, as well as their correlation with the wine quality, is ongoing. Improving the knowledge of wine aromatic compounds could increase the risk of its potential adulteration; however, consumers prefer wine for its natural origin, so this scenario is unlikely in the future.

Monday, 24 August 2020

Metabolites from Macroalgae and Its Applications in the Cosmetic Industry: A Circular Economy Approach

 Resources 2020, 9(9), 101


DOI:10.3390/resources9090101




Marine macroalgae are a suitable source of ingredients due to their huge diversity, availability and nutritional and chemical composition. Their high content in proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins, but also in secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenoids or pigments, make them great candidates for industrial applications. The cosmetic industry is one of the biggest in the world and the search for new ingredients is constantly growing as the consumer trend now is going back to those traditional cosmetics with a more natural composition. Moreover, the concept of a circular economy is also gaining importance due to the unsustainable situation of the natural resources. Although macroalgae are already used in cosmetics, especially as thickening and gelling agents, they possess an unexplored potential, not only as excipients and additives but also as a source of new active ingredients. In this context, macroalgae are considered in many cases as resources still underexploited and they could even be obtained from the waste of other industrial sectors and be used for recovering active molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile information about the different macroalgae metabolites and their possible applications in the cosmetic industry, which could employ circular economy models. 

Sunday, 23 August 2020

Wine Aging Technology: Fundamental Role of Wood Barrels

 Foods 2020, 9(9), 1160

DOI:10.3390/foods9091160




The aging of wines is a process used to preserve wine but also to enhance its properties. It is a process of great interest, mainly because of the additional properties it adds to wines and because of its economic implications. Historically, barrels have been employed for centuries for preserving and aging wine due to their resistance and relative impermeability. In general terms, the wine aging process can be divided into two phases: oxidative and reductive aging. Oxidative aging traditionally takes place in barrels while reductive phase occurs in the bottle. During both processes, oxygen plays a fundamental role as well as other factors, for instance: temperature, light, bottle position, microbial growth or storage time. Likewise, during the aging process, a series of chemical reactions take place influencing the composition and organoleptic profile of wine. At this point, oxidative aging in barrels is a fundamental step. Barrels are directly involved in the produced changes on wine’s composition due to the transference of oxygen and phenolic and aromatic compounds from wood to wine. This way, barrels act as an active vessel capable of releasing compounds that affect and improve wine’s characteristics. Regarding, the importance of barrels during aging process, some attention must be given to the species most used in cooperage. These species are conventionally oak species, either French or American. However, other non-conventional species are currently being studied as possible wood sources for the production of wines, such as chestnut robinia or other oak species. In the last decades, new approaches have been developed for barrel aging to find new alternatives more suitable, affordable and feasible to sanitize the process, such as other materials different from wood or the use of wood chips, which is regulated since 2006 by the EU. However, even though some of them have shown promising data, barrels are currently the most used technology for the oxidative stage of table wines aging. 


Friday, 14 August 2020

Scientific Approaches on Extraction, Purification and Stability for the Commercialization of Fucoxanthin Recovered from Brown Algae

 Foods 2020, 9(8), 1113

DOI:10.3390/foods9081113



The scientific community has corroborated the numerous beneficial activities of fucoxanthin, such as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer or neuroprotective effects, among others. These properties have attracted the attention of nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmacological industries, giving rise to various possible applications. Fucoxanthin may be chemically produced, but the extraction from natural sources is considered more cost-effective, efficient and eco-friendly. Thus, identifying suitable sources of this compound and giving a general overview of efficient extraction, quantification, purification and stabilization studies is of great importance for the future production and commercialization of fucoxanthin. The scientific research showed that most of the studies are performed using conventional techniques, but non-conventional techniques begin to gain popularity in the recovery of this compound. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and spectroscopy techniques have been employed in the quantification and identification of fucoxanthin. The further purification of extracts has been mainly accomplished using purification columns. Finally, the stability of fucoxanthin has been assessed as a free molecule, in an emulsion, or encapsulated to identify the variables that might affect its further industrial application.


Thursday, 13 August 2020

Effect of polyphenols on HER2-positive breast cancer and related miRNAs: Epigenomic regulation

 Food Research International, 2020, 137, 109623

DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109623


HER2-positive breast cancer is one of the most aggressive subtypes accounting for nearly 30% of diagnosed cases. It is associated with reduced disease-free survival, tumor invasiveness, and a poor overall prognosis. Unfortunately, numerous patients develop resistance to conventional therapies; therefore, many ongoing clinical trials are testing new possible treatments. Polyphenols are the main bioactive components of the Mediterranean diet with multiple beneficial properties playing a key role in cancer prevention through epigenetic regulation. Aberrant variations in microRNAs levels regulating oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes expression may lead to tumor development. Evidence has shown that dietary polyphenols modulate HER2-positive breast cancer-associated microRNAs, resulting in a reduction of tumor growth and metastatic potential, and chemosensitivity restoration without displaying toxicity-derived adverse effects. These beneficial properties make polyphenols a potential therapeutic approach for HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the clinical setting, alone or in combination with conventional therapies.


Wednesday, 12 August 2020

Application of Novel Techniques for Monitoring Quality Changes in Meat and Fish Products during Traditional Processing Processes: Reconciling Novelty and Tradition

 Processes 2020, 8(8), 988

DOI:10.3390/pr8080988



In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in monitoring changes induced in fish and other seafood, and meat and meat products, following the application of traditional processing processes by means of conventional and emerging advanced techniques. Selected examples from the literature covering relevant applications of spectroscopic methods (i.e., visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fluorescence) will be used to illustrate the topics covered in this review. Although a general reluctance toward using and adopting new technologies in traditional production sectors causes a relatively low interest in spectroscopic techniques, the recently published studies have pointed out that these techniques could be a powerful tool for the non-destructive monitoring and process optimization during the production of muscle food products.

Sunday, 9 August 2020

Gas Chromatographic Fingerprinting Coupled to Chemometrics for Food Authentication

 Food Reviews International, 2020, 36, 384-427

DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2019.1649691


Fingerprinting has become a powerful device in food authentication activities. Food products can be verified based on their chemical composition, geographical origin, specified botanical sources or possible adulterations by fingerprinting gas chromatographic chemical analysis and a subsequent multivariate data analysis. Although fingerprinting approaches have already been used successfully in many research projects, feasibility and employment in routine daily tests and food composition monitoring are not still widespread. Within this review, food fingerprinting studies in gas chromatographic methods for different food product categories were selected by a systematic search method. The studies were examined for chemometrics techniques, identification of effective variables, method validation and quality assurance parameters. In this way, the research activities could be considered as an effective starting point to establish fingerprinting techniques for food authentication in wide industrial scale in the future.


Tuesday, 28 July 2020

Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

 Foods 2020, 9(8), 1014

DOI:10.3390/foods9081014



Background: 

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is responsible for a large part of many health benefits associated to Mediterranean diet as it is a fundamental ingredient of this diet. The peculiarities of this golden, highly valued product are in part due to the requirements that must be met to achieve this title, namely, it has to be obtained using exclusively mechanical procedures, its free acidity cannot be greater than 0.8%, it must not show sensory defects, and it has to possess a fruity taste. 

Methods: 

All these characteristics are key factors to EVOO quality, thus the chemical composition of these many health-promoting compounds, such as unsaturated fatty acids (which are also the major compounds, especially oleic acid), as well as minor components such as tocopherols or phenolic compounds (which behave as natural antioxidants) must be preserved. 

Results: 

Due to the presence of all these compounds, the daily consumption of EVOO entails health benefits such as cardioprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor properties or acting as regulator of the intestinal microbiota, among others. 

Conclusions: 

Taking all together, conserving EVOO chemical composition is essential to preserve its properties, so it is worth to control certain factors during storage like exposure to light, temperature, oxygen presence or the chosen packaging material, to maintain its quality and extend its shelf-life until its consumption.

Wednesday, 22 July 2020

Influence of tetraconazole on the proteome profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin T73™ strain

Journal of Proteomics, 2020, 227, 103915 

DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103915



This work aimed to evaluate the modifications on the proteome profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73™ strain as a consequence of its adaptive response to the presence of tetraconazole molecules in the fermentation medium. Pasteurised grape juices were separately supplemented with tetraconazole or a commercial formulation containing 12.5% w/v of tetraconazole at two concentration levels. In addition, experiments without fungicides were developed for comparative purposes.

Proteome profiles of yeasts cultured in the presence or absence of fungicide molecules were different. Independently of the fungicide treatment applied, the highest variations concerning the control sample were observed for those proteins involved in metabolic processes, especially in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds. Tetraconazole molecules altered the abundance of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, purines, and ergosterol. Moreover, differences in the abundance of several enzymes of the TCA cycle were found. Changes observed were different between the active substance and the commercial formulation.

Significance
The presence of fungicide residues in grape juice has direct implications on the development of the aromatic profile of the wine. These alterations could be related to changes in the secondary metabolism of yeasts. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of yeasts to fungicide residues remains quite unexplored. Through this exhaustive proteomic study, alterations in the amino acids biosynthesis pathways due to the presence of the tetraconazole molecules were observed. Amino acids are precursors of some important higher alcohols and ethyl acetates (such as methionol, 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl alcohol or 2-phenylacetate). Besides, the effect of tetraconazole on the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway could be related to a higher production of medium-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl acetates.


Wednesday, 15 July 2020

Potential Health Benefit of Garlic Based on Human Intervention Studies: A Brief Overview

 Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 619 

DOI: 10.3390/antiox9070619



Garlic is a polyphenolic and organosulfur enriched nutraceutical spice consumed since ancient times. Garlic and its secondary metabolites have shown excellent health-promoting and disease-preventing effects on many human common diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, blood pressure, and diabetes, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering properties, as demonstrated in several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the consumption of garlic, garlic preparation, garlic extract, and garlic extract-derived bioactive constituents on oxidative stress, inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, skin, bone, and other common diseases. Among the 83 human interventional trials considered, the consumption of garlic has been reported to modulate multiple biomarkers of different diseases; in addition, its combination with drugs or other food matrices has been shown to be safe and to prolong their therapeutic effects. The rapid metabolism and poor bioavailability that have limited the therapeutic use of garlic in the last years are also discussed.


Tuesday, 7 July 2020

Preventive potential and mechanism of dietary polyphenols on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines

 Food Frontiers, 2020, 1, 134-151

https://doi.org/10.1002/fft2.30


Thermal processing is the most important and popular domestic cooking method. More than 30 heterocyclic aromatic amines have been identified in cooked meat using various methods. This review highlights preventive potential and mechanism of dietary polyphenols on the formation of heterocyclic amines. Tea, coffee, fruits, vegetable, and spice extracts rich in polyphenols exerted significant inhibition against the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines. Some polyphenols, such as naringenin and epigallocatechin 3‐O‐gallate, can actively participate into food chemistry reaction to trap Strecker aldehyde and lower the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines. In addition, some polyphenols can lower the mutagenicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines. More specifically, polyphenols possessing two hydroxyl groups at the meta position of aromatic ring are the most efficient one, but the presence of carboxylic or alkyl groups as substituents in the aromatic ring slightly reduced the inhibitory effect.


Monday, 6 July 2020

Application of Rank Annihilation Factor Analysis for Antibacterial Drugs Determination by Means of pH Gradual Change-UV Spectral Data

 Antibiotics 2020, 9(7), 383

DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9070383




The main objective of this study was to develop a simple and efficient spectrophotometric technique combined with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in drug formulations. Specifically, we sought: (i) to evaluate the potential use of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) to pH gradual change spectrophotometric data in order to provide sufficient accuracy and model robustness; and (ii) to determine SMX and TMP concentration in drug formulations without tedious pre-treatments such as derivatization or extraction techniques which are time-consuming and require hazardous solvents. In the proposed method, the spectra of the sample solutions at different pH values were recorded and the pH-spectra bilinear data matrix was generated. On these data, RAFA was then applied to estimate the concentrations of SMX and TMP in synthetic and real samples. Applying RAFA showed that the two drugs could be determined simultaneously with concentration ratios of SMX to TMP varying from 1:30 to 30:1 in the mixed samples (concentration range is 1–30 µg mL−1 for both components). The limits of detection were 0.25 and 0.38 µg mL−1 for SMX and TMP, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of SMX and TMP in some synthetic, pharmaceutical formulation and biological fluid samples. In addition, the means of the estimated RSD (%) were 1.71 and 2.18 for SMX and TMP, respectively, in synthetic mixtures. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by spiked recovery test on biological samples with satisfactory results (90.50–109.80%).

Saturday, 4 July 2020

Stability assessment of extracts obtained from Arbutus unedo L. fruits in powder and solution systems using machine-learning methodologies

 Food Chemistry, 2020, 33, 127460

DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127460


Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) has showed considerable content in phenolic compounds, especially flavan-3-ols (catechin, gallocatechin, among others). The interest of flavan-3-ols has increased due their bioactive actions, namely antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and by association of their consumption to diverse health benefits including the prevention of obesity, cardiovascular diseases or cancer. These compounds, mainly catechin, have been showed potential for use as natural preservative in foodstuffs; however, their degradation is increased by pH and temperature of processing and storage, which can limit their use by food industry. To model the degradation kinetics of these compounds under different conditions of storage, three kinds of machine learning models were developed: i) random forest, ii) support vector machine and iii) artificial neural network. The selected models can be used to track the kinetics of the different compounds and properties under study without the prior knowledge requirement of the reaction system.



Thursday, 18 June 2020

Rapid liquid chromatographic method for the control of doxycycline and tiamulin residues and their metabolites in vivo assays with pigs: Treatment and depletion

 Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2020, 190, 113428

DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113428



Results gained from in vivo metabolism could be more authentic to reflect the biotransformation of drugs than in vitro metabolism. This paper discusses the development and characterization of an analytical method for controlling tiamulin (TIA) and doxycycline (DOX) residues in pig plasma and urine, as well as their in vivo biotransformation during treatment and suppression steps at pig farms. For such a purpose, urine samples were taken daily (24-hr intervals) during treatment and until day 8 after last dose. Plasma samples were collected on the last treatment day and up to days 4 and 7 after the last dose. Only traces of TIA and their metabolites have been still detected 8 days after the last day of therapy, in agreement with the period of suppression of both antibiotics set by the manufacturers in 7 days. It was estimated that TIA and DOX half-lives were of two days and one day, respectively. TIA and DOX metabolites have been identified for the first time in plasma and urine pig samples during treatment and suppression steps.


Thursday, 11 June 2020

AA1 & EcoChestnut


EcoChestnut project aims at enhancing the development opportunities and boost the growth potential of European chestnut farmers & chestnut products producers.
 
EcoChestnut main output is an online comprehensive and tailored training on organic chestnuts farming & chestnut products manufacturing. The course focuses also on enhancing the competences on marketing strategy, communication with customers, and diversification of the activities.
 
EcoChestnut project supports farmers and producers in development of their potential for production and promotion of organic chestnuts & chestnut products. EcoChestnut will also provide the vocational trainers with learning methods and material to encourage farmers in their initiative.

Objectives

The EU chestnuts market has been experiencing a strong growth in demand for organic chestnut products for the last 10 years. This demand is unsatisfied in volume, so it has to rely on non-EU imports to be satisfied. The Project aims at enhancing the competitiveness of the EU chestnut farmers and producers.

The main objectives are:
  1. Develop specific knowledge on production and promotion of Organic Chestnuts & Chestnut Products through a tailor made training course for farmers & producers.
  2. Support chestnut farmers & chestnut products producers to enter the market of Organic Chestnuts & Chestnut Products in order to enhance their development opportunities and their growth potential.
  3. Raise awareness in chestnuts & chestnut groves as part of cultural, historical and landscape heritage of the countries that produce them.
  4. Promote sustainable agricultural farming & encourage the application of organic farming among new and existing chestnut farmers and producers.
To answer this needs, EcoChestnut proposes
  1. The EcoChestnut Learning Model
  2. A Training Course on Organic Chestnuts & Chestnut Products
  3. A Manual for Trainers
  4. A Guidebook on Certification of Organic Chestnuts
  5. A Handbook on “Utilize the potential of the chestnut groves”
 
The project is running from November 2019 to April 2022.


Project number
2019-1-FR01-KA202-062276
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This website and all its contents reflect the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


More information following this link

Monday, 8 June 2020

Scientific basis for the industrialization of traditionally used plants of the Rosaceae family

Food Chemistry, 2020, 330, 127197

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127197



Plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of illness, due to biomolecules with recognised benefits. Rosaceae family is used in traditional Galician medicine. The following plants Agrimonia eupatoria, Crataegus monogyna, Filipendula ulmaria, Geum urbanum, Potentilla erecta and Rosa canina are usually found in treatments. The aim of this study is to perform an ethnobotanical review about the bioactive compounds of these plants and their different bioactivities, both studied in vitro and in vivo. The nature of the bioactive compounds is varied, highlighting the presence of different phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids or tannins. Understanding the beneficial effects of the administration of the whole plant or target tissues from A. eupatoria, C. monogyna, F. ulmaria, G. urbanum, P. erecta and R. canina as well as those from their individual compounds could lead to the development of new drugs based on the use of natural ingredients.

 

Friday, 5 June 2020

The effect of two antifungal commercial formulations on the metabolism of a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and their repercussion on fermentation evolution and phenylalanine catabolism

 Food Microbiology, 2020, 92, 103554

DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2020.103554



The effect of two commercial formulations (incorporating mepanipyrim and tetraconazole as active substances) on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lalvin T73™, growing on a synthetic grape must, and their influence on the alcoholic fermentation course and the biosynthesis of volatiles derived from phenylalanine catabolism was studied. No relevant effects were observed for mepanipyrim except for glycerol production. On the contrary, in the presence of tetraconazole many genes and some proteins related to cell cycle progression and mitosis were repressed. This fact could explain the lower biomass concentration and the lower sugar consumption registered for tetraconazole at the end of the study. However, the biomass-to-ethanol yield was higher in connection with the overexpression of the ADH1 gene. The presence of tetraconazole residues seems to accelerate the Ehrlich pathway. These results agree with the overexpression of several genes (BAT1, PDC1, PDC5, ADH1, SFA1, ATF2, PFK1, PFK2 and ARO3) and a higher abundance of two proteins (Gap1p and Atf2p) involved in this metabolic pathway.



Thursday, 4 June 2020

Plant-Food Guarantee and Improvement

WEBINAR SERIES 

The series includes 3 live Webinars that will take place between 5-19 June 2020, starting at 11:30 AM, on the remote campus of Vigo University (Link). They will be carried out by leading professors and postdoctoral researchers in this subject area.



 Date: June 5th, 2020



Program:
11:30- Greetings and presentation

11:35- Pre and post-harvest factors determining fruit nutritional quality.
Presenter: Bruno Mezzetti, Prof.- Full Professor Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences – Università Politecnica delle Marche. Higlhy Cited Researcher 2019. (Visiting professor)

12:10- Circular Bio-Economy and the Case of Phenolic Compounds from Food By-Products.
Presenter: Jesús Simal Gándara, Prof.- Full Professor Department of Food and Analytical Chemistry– Vigo University. Higlhy Cited Researcher 2018.

12:30- Models for Quantification of Individual, Synergistic, and Antagonistic Anti- and Pro-Oxidant Responses.
Presenter: Miguel Angel Prieto Lage, PhD- Postdoctoral Researcher (Ramón y Cajal), Department of Food and Analytical Chemistry – Vigo University.

12:50- Discussion


 Date: June 12th, 2020



Program:
11:30- Greetings and presentation

11:35- Breeding and biotechnology for improving nutritional quality.
Presenter: Bruno Mezzetti, Prof.- Full Professor Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences – Università Politecnica delle Marche. Higlhy Cited Researcher 2019. (Visiting professor)

12:10- Technological Application of Tannin-Based Extracts.
Presenter: María Fraga Corral, PhD- Postdoctoral Researcher (Xunta de Galicia), Department of Food and Analytical Chemistry – Vigo University.

12:30- Phenolic Compounds as Nutraceutical Tools for the Prevention of Metabolic diseases.
Presenter: Tamara Forbes Hernández, PhD- Postdoctoral Researcher (Juan de la Cierva), Department of Food and Analytical Chemistry – Vigo University.

12:50- Discussion


 Date: June 19th, 2020



Program:
11:30- Greetings and presentation

11:35- RNAi technology for food security and safety.
Presenter: Bruno Mezzetti, Prof.- Full Professor Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences – Università Politecnica delle Marche. Higlhy Cited Researcher 2019. (Visiting professor)

12:10- Phenolic Compounds as Nutraceutical Tools for the Prevention of Cancer.
Presenter: Francesca Giampieri, PhD.- Distinguished Researcher, Department of Food and Analytical Chemistry – Vigo University. Higlhy Cited Researcher 2019.

12:30- Bioactive compounds recovery from winery industry by-products: vine shoots as study case.
Presenter: Particia Gullón Estévez, PhD- Researcher Laboratory of Microbiology and Technology of Marine Products, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC).

12:50- Discussion

Tuesday, 26 May 2020

Advantages of techniques to fortify food products with the benefits of fish oil

 Food Research International, 2020, 137, 109353

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109353


Fish oil has been widely applied in fortified food products because of its special health benefits especially containing high unsaturated fatty acids mainly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Nowadays, there are various foods fortify with fish oil available in the market. The main challenge of fortification of food products with fish oil is its highly susceptible to oxidation and its influence on sensory attributes during storage. The fortification methods such as direct addition through bulk fish oil, emulsion or microencapsulation could effectively improve the oxidative stability of fish oil and mask unpleasant fishy flavour in fortified products. Therefore, this article provides a review of techniques, their advantages and limitations, together with the effects of incorporating fish oil in foods products.



Saturday, 23 May 2020

Dietary polyphenols for managing cancers: What have we ignored?

 Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2020, 101, 150-164

DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2020.05.017


Although the chemoprevention and anti-cancer activities of dietary polyphenols have been evidenced through both in vitro and in vivo studies, most of the human clinical trials were unsuccessful or even harmful. Debates on the beneficial roles of dietary polyphenols in cancer therapy are increasing. Many dietary polyphenols studies are conducted by in vitro experiments, but the nature of these studies does not consider the complexity of metabolic processes that are present in vivo. These can often cause instability in the dietary polyphenols, thereby leading to unsuccessful extrapolation into animal or human studies. Dietary polyphenols often have low bioavailability, which is mainly due to poor bioaccessibility and significant metabolism mediated by both host enzymes and colon microbiota. Some metabolites or catabolites are more potent and absorb better than the parent component. It is recognised that the oral bioavailability of dietary polyphenols is underestimated when the bioactive metabolites or catabolites are not considered. Notably, dietary polyphenols and their metabolites undergo further cellular metabolism within the cancer cells, which confers “cellular bioavailability” as an additional step to influence the actions of dietary polyphenols. Moreover, there are growing controversies in using dietary polyphenols for both chemopreventive and anti-cancer applications. A clear therapeutic window for dietary polyphenols as specific chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents is required. This review, thus, aims to identify key issues that were ignored by most of the studies, or are critical for future investigation.


Monday, 27 April 2020

Recent advances in extracting phenolic compounds from food and their use in disease prevention and as cosmetics

 Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition


Phenolic compounds in plants are essential components of human nutrition, which provide various health benefits. However, some missing links became the research in phenolic compounds structures and potential applications in a challenging work. Despite universal extraction methods with mixtures of different organic solvents are generally adopted in the analysis of phenolic compounds, a need for establish a specific procedure is still open. The great heterogeneity in food and food by-products matrices and the lack of standardized methods which combine chromatographic with spectrophotometric techniques to calculate the amount of phenolic compounds joined with the absence of specific standards hamper to accurate know the real amount of phenolic compounds. Indeed, the high complexity in nature and chemistry of phenolic compounds clearly difficult to establish a daily intake to obtain certain healthy outcomes. Hence, despite the potential of phenolic compounds to use them in cosmetic and healthy applications have been widely analyzed, some concerns must be considered. The chemical complexity, the interactions between phenolic compounds and other food components and the structural changes induced by food processing joined with the lack in the understanding of phenolic compounds metabolism and bioavailability undergo the need to conduct a comprehensive review of each factors influencing the final activity of phenolic compounds. This paper summarizes the potential of phenolic compounds for disease prevention and cosmetics production, as well as their many other uses derived from their antioxidant activity. This paper illustrates the potential of phenolic compounds for disease prevention and cosmetics production, as well as their many other uses derived from their antioxidant activity.


Thursday, 23 April 2020

Food production link to underground waters quality in A Limia river basin

 Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2020, 297, 106969

DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2020.106969


Water pollution is a global challenge, undermining economic growth as well as the physical and environmental health of billions of people. With the exception of polar caps, the world's largest freshwater reserve is found underground, but human activities such as agricultural, livestock, urban or industrial can affect its quality. 

The aim of this work was to carry out a study on the chemical quality of groundwater in the region of A Limia (NW Spain) and to evaluate its possible degradation by anthropogenic influence. Water samples were taken from 76 private wells and 26 natural sources in the region. The presence and levels of anions were analyzed by ion chromatography, whereas trace metals were measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). More than half of the wells analyzed and three natural sources showed nitrate contamination and some samples exceeded the limit allowed by legislation for other elements and compounds. It could be inferred that this surface aquifer contamination could be attributed to intensive agriculture and livestock farming.

Wednesday, 22 April 2020

Toward a sustainable metric and indicators for the goal of sustainability in agricultural and food production

 Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition




This paper reviews the state of the art in agricultural and food sustainability with special emphasis on metrics for monitoring progress toward their accomplishment, and with a view to assisting stakeholders in facing the challenges involved. Priorities, bottlenecks, alternatives, conclusions and recommendations are considered. Finding long-lasting solutions in this scenario will inevitably require revising rural development and smallholder agriculture, and bringing about structural changes for the benefit of the poorer stakeholders. Better farming systems, new technologies, quality education and effective business models can be useful toward creating decent jobs, solving resource constraints, expanding market participation, and alleviating physical hardship in the agricultural sector —particularly among women and young people. Agriculture in industrialized countries will additionally require restructuring with new policies aimed at favoring low- and medium-income countries. On the other hand, high-income countries will have to face pressing challenges including unhealthy diets, food waste generation, balancing food and biofuel production, and developing fair agricultural policies. In addition, the richer should lead the way to higher levels of productivity, resource efficiency, food safety and traceability, and environmental friendliness in order to provide useful lessons for technological development and policing in developing countries. This is why, after presenting the actual world status of food sustainability and how its global governance is linked to environmental, economic and social dimensions, some measures and indicators for monitoring progress are reviewed with the final aim of providing solutions and recommendations for the sustainability of the food production and consumption system.


1-3-Dichloropropene 2030 Agenda priorities Abribone Particles Accumulation Acid Soils Acidification Activated Carbon Active ingredients Acuicultura Adsorption Adulteration Aeration Aerobiology Aggregation Agricultural Residue Agro-industrial waste Agronomic performance Agrostis capillaris Air temperature Airborne Alcohols Aldehyde Algae Alkaline Hydrolysis Alkylamines Allelochemical stress Allergy Aluminium Alzheimer's Disease Amendment Amino acid and purine biosynthesis Amphibolite Amylases Analysis Anionic Amphiphiles AnionsMetals ANN Anoma Anthocyanins Anti-aging Anti-cancer activity Antidepressant Antimicrobial Antimicrobial applications Antimicrobial compounds Antioxidants Antioxidants Activity Antiradical Activity Antitumorigenic activity Antiviral Apples Applications AQUA-CIBUS Aqueous solution Arabidopsis thaliana Arbequina ARIMA Aroma Aromatic compounds Aromatic plants Arsenic Artificial Neural Networks Ascorbic acid Ashes Atmospheric Pollution Authentication Autohydrolysis Auxins Availability Axisymetric Models Bacillus subtilis Bacterial growth Bacteriocin Bare fallow soils Barley straw Barrels Batch Beer Bentonite Berry Bilinear matrix Bioactive compounds Bioactive Food Components Bioactive substances Bioactivities Bioavailability Biochar Bioethanol Biofilm Biological indicator Biomarkers Biomonitoring Biorefinery Biosorbent Biotransformation Black Pepper Blockchain Technology Blueberry Body weight Boscalid Botrycides Botrytis cinerea Brassica juncea Brewery wastes Brown macroalgae BTEX Bullet corrosion Butter fat By-products Cadmium Caffeic Acid Calcium Candelilla Candidate gene Carbon isotope discrimination Carburan Catechin-rich extract Cattle Slurry Cell cycle Celta pig breed Characterization Cheese whey Chemical composition Chemical equilibrium Chemometrics Chemoresistance Chestnuts Chloropicrin Chlorteracycline Cholinesterases Chorizo Chromatography Chromium Circular economy Clasification Climate change Climate impact CMC Cobalt Colloids Color Column experiments Competitive sorption Compost Compounds Conformational changes Conjoint analysis Continuous fermentation Control Controlled deficit irrigation Cooking methods Copper Corn breeding Corn cob Corn stover Cornicabra Cortical Neurons Corticosteroids Corticosterone Cortisol Cosmetics Cow Milk Crop Protection Crushed Mussel Shell cucurbit[7]uril cucurbituril Curing Cycas pectinata Cyclic voltammetry Cyclodextrins Cyclopentadecanone Cytotoxicity Dactylis glomerata Data Acquisition and Management Data analysis Decomposition Decontamination Degradation Dehydrogenase activity Denitrosation Density Desorption DFT calculations Diabetes mellitus Dietary polyphenols Dinamic Surface Tension Discharge prediction Disease prevention Dissipation Dithiocarbamates Doxycycline Dry fruit Dry-cured Drying DTCs Edible films Edible flowers Ehrlich pathway Encapsulation Enrichment factors Enterococcus faecium Enzymatic hydrolysis Enzymatic saccharification ErbB2 Ergosterol biosynthesis Esencial Oil Essential oils Ethanol Ethnobotanic Ethylene Ethylenethiourea Eucalyptus camaldulensis EVOO EVOO applications EVOO quality EVOOs Extra Virgin Olive Oil Extraction Extraction Optimization Extraction techniques Fast growing biomass Fat healthiness Fat oxidation Fatty Acids Faults FE-SEM/EDS Feathers Fed-batch fermentation Fed-batch SSF Fed-batch system Feed intake Feluric Acid Feluroyl esterase Fenhexamid Ferhexamid Fermentation Ferulic acid Feruloyl Feruloyl esterase Fingerprint Firing range soils Fish oil Flavanols Flavor Flowering delay Fluorescence Fluoride Fluorine Focus group Folin-Ciocalteuassay Food additives Food analysis Food authentication Food Authenticity Food by-products Food composition Food fingerprinting Food intake-related public risks Food Quality Food Supply Chain Food sustainability Food systems Food Traceability Foods Forest Forest Soils Formación Fortification Fortified Wines Fourier transform infrared Fractionation Fraxinus Frog Frozen storage Frugal-innovation Fucoxanthin Fuidized bed reactor Fullerene Functional Enzymes Functional Food Fungal Spores Fungicide Fungicides Furfural Galicia Galician virgin olive oils Garlic Garnacha Tintorera Gastrointestinal tract GC GC/MS Gelation Generic diversity Genetic variation Geothermal systems Germination Germplasm charaterization Glassy network Glucomannan Gold nanoparticles Gourmet Graciano Granite Granite powder Granitic Material Grape juice Grapes Grasshopper Effect Gravitropism Green synthesis Growth Guava HAE Hair Health benefits Heat-Assited Extraction Heavy Metals Helath claim Hemicelluloses Hemp waste Heterocyclic aromatic amines High hydrostatic pressure High pressure High solids loading Histeresys index Histolocalization Hordeum vulgar HPLC HPLC-DAD HPLC-FLD HPLC-MS/MS HPLC/MS HR-TEM/EDS Humid acid Hyaluronic acid Hydrogeology Hydrolysis Hydroxycinnamic acid Hydroxylpropyl-beta-cyclodextrins Hyperspectral imaging immobilization In vitro Industrial applications Industrial level Innovative functional foods Instrumental analysis Ionic Liquids Iron Job Opportunities Jornadas Kale Keroxim Kinematic viscosity Kinetics Konjac glucomannan Laboratory column Lactic acid Lactic acid bacteria Land use LDT Lead Leaf water relations Lenga temperate forests Liberation Lignin Ligustrum Lime pretreatment Linear Discriminant Analysis Lipid oxidation Lipolysis Lipoxygenase Liqueurs Long-term fertilization Lotka-Volterra Low toxicity Maceration Machine learning Macroalgae Macroalgae applications Magnesium Maize populations Major Depressive Disorder MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS Mancozeb MAO Marcozeb Marinades Measures and indicators Meat Meat Quality Medicinal plant Mediterranean diet Membrane filtration Mepanipyrim Mercury Metabolism Metabolite Metabolites Metabolomics Metal Metal availability Metal fractionation Metalaxyl Meteorology Methyl isothiocyanate Metrafenone Micelles Microalgae Microbiota Microemulsions Microscopy Microtubules Mine Mine soil Mine tailing Mode of Action Modelisation Molecular docking Monoamine Oxidase MS MS/MS Multidrug resistance Multiple chemicals Multiproduct biorefinery Multivariate analysis Muscle foods Mussel Mussel shell Mustard plants Nanocoating Nanoparticle Nanowhisker NAO index Natural Colorants Natural sources Neonates Neonicitinoids Neurodegenerative Disorders Neuroprotection Neurotoxins Nickel NIR Nisin Nitric Oxide Nitrosomercaptopyridine NO Non-linear processes Noticias Novel technologies NPK Fertilizers Nutraceulticals Nutrients Oak ash Oak species Oat straw OAV Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens leaves OCPs Odorants Odour Activity Value Ole e 1 Olea Oleaceae Olive Co-crushing Olive Oil Olive oil by-products OncomiR OPEs OPPs OPs Optimization Organic amendment Organic carbon Organic matter Organic pollutants Ourense Oxidation Oxidative damage Oxidative phase Oximes Oxytetracycline Ozone p-hydroxybenzoic acid PAHs Paper Industry Parkinson's Disease Pastureland Soils Pathogenic bacteria PBDEs PBDs PCBs PCDDs PCDFs PDO Pellets Percolation Perlite waste addition Pest Management Protocols Pesticide Pets pH pH-spectra Phenolic and aromatic compounds Phenolic Compounds Phenolics Phenology Phenotyping Phosphate Phosphorus Phosphorus adsorption Phosphorus desorption Physical protection Physiological responses Phytochemicals Phytopigments Phytostabilization Phytotoxic effects Phytotoxicity Picual Pig Pig genotypes Pig Stress Pigeon Piglets Pine bark Pine Sawdust Pinus sylvestris Pistachia vera Placenta Plant cell walls Plant production Plantago Plasma Pollen Polluted Soils Polluted Water Pollution Polymer Polyphenols Post-harvest drying Potato Prairie Prebiotic activity Precipitation Prediction Prenatal Preservation Prevention Probiotics Process optimization Production Profiling Properties Proteases protected denomination of origin Proteome profile Proteomics Public health Purification Putative transcription factors Pyritic material PYRs Quality-related Indices Quantification Racked bed reactor Rain Rainfastness Raman Random forest Rank annihilation factor analysis Raw Fish Oil Reaction kinetics modelling Reactor Realkalization Red Rubin Basil Red Wines Redes de Investigación Reinforced Wines Remediation Residues Resistance Response surface methodology Retaining capacity Retention Reuse Rheological properties Ripening temperature RISEGAL Risk assessment Risk Periodos River River bed sediments RMN Root growth Roots Rosaceae family RSM S-nitrosothiol Salting intensity Saponification Screening methods SDS SDS-PAGE Secondary Metabolites Seedling Seminarios Sensory analysis Sensory attributes Sepia Ink Sequential extraction Serotonin Sesamia nonagrioides Settling pond Shelf-life Shelterwood-cut silvicultural system Shooting range Short chain fatty acids Signalling pathways Silage Single extraction Slaughterhouse Large Time Soil Soil aggregates Soil Amendment Soil impact Soil pollution Soil remediation Soil residues Soil structure Soils Solanum tuberosum Solid-state fermentation Solvent Extraction Sorption Soybean oil Spectrometry Spectroscopy Speed of Sound Spirits SSR markers Stability Stress response Styrene Subcutaneous ham fat Subcutaneous pig back-fat Sulfamethoxazole Sulfur-containing compounds Support vector machine Surface Surface Tension Surfactants Sustainability Sustainable Adsorbents Sustainable Development Sustainable use of natural resources SWAdSV Sweet Wines Swertia chirata Taladros Tarbush Taste Technosol Tempranillo Tenacity Terra preta do índio Tetraciclyne Thermal gelation profiles Thermal springs Throughfall Tiamulin TOF-SIMS Toro Appellation of Origin Total aliphatic hydrocarbons Toxic cocktail effects Toxicity Traditional Smoked Foods Traditionally used plants trans-Caryophyllene Transcriptomics Transport Transport experiment Tree vegetation Trimethoprim Tropical soils Tumor suppressor miR Underground waters University of Vigo Urine UV-Vis spectroscopy Vaccinium corymbosum Vacuum packaging Valorization Vanadium Variedades tolerantes Vinclozolin Vine trimming shoot Vineyard Virgin Olive Oils Virus Viscosity Vitamin Volatile Volatile Compounds Voltímetro Wash-off Waste reduction Wastes Wastewater Water deficit Water efficiency Water pollution Water quality Water temperature Weakly deacetylation Weather Webinar Wells Wheat straw Whey Wine Wine aging Wine Quality Wine-making Practices Winemaking Process Withered inflorescences Wood Wood Ash Xylitol Xylooligosaccharides Xylose Zea mays Zinc β-Lactoglobulin