Wednesday 18 January 2017

Effects of hydrochemistry variables on the half-life of mancozeb and on the hazard index associated to the sum of mancozeb and ethylenethiourea

Environmental Research, 154, 2017, 253-260

Mancozeb is a dithiocarbamate non-systemic agricultural fungicide with multi-site, protective action. It helps to control many fungal diseases in a wide range of field crops, fruits, nuts, vegetables, and ornamental plants. We have investigated the stability profiles of mancozeb in aqueous solutions to determine the effect of pH, temperature and light on the degradation process of mancozeb. In addition, the toxicological risk for humans associated with the joint intake of mancoze7b and its final degradation product, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was calculated and modelled as a function of the experimental conditions. Stability study results showed a very low stability profile of mancozeb in all the aqueous solutions with rapid degradation that varied with experimental conditions. The process followed first order kinetics. The study of the degradation kinetics showed a significant effect of pH*temperature interaction on the degradation process. The results also expressed that light has a greater impact on the stability of mancozeb and the formation of ETU. The current study concludes that mancozeb is unstable in aqueous solutions, particularly at an acid pH, in addition to presenting both severe light and lower temperature sensitivity. The toxicological risk associated with mancozeb degradation increases with time and temperature, being higher at basic pH and in absence of light.

Tuesday 10 January 2017

Determination of kinetic bioconcentration in mussels after short term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


The kinetic bioconcentration of N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) after short waterborne exposure was studied. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), its analogue azaarene 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene (AzaBaP), and their mixture (Mix), were selected to monitor the changes in water concentrations over three days. Decay of both PAHs concentrations in water after 24 h of waterborne exposure to mussels at levels of 10 and 100 μg/L follows a first order kinetic with half-lives of 4–5 h, with residual levels of PAHs below 7%. While steady-state scenarios are well studied, there is a lack of information of what happens under non-steady-state conditions, the main purpose of our paper. A synergistic bioconcentration of the mixture was found (around 800 in the mix vs. around 400 for individual PAHs at 100 μg/L of waterborne exposure). It could be explained by the following reasons. The most polar AzaBaP does not compete with the most non-polar BaP for the same tissue compartments. Whereas BaP aggregate in hydrophobic areas, AzaBaP can also do in hydrophilic areas. Moreover, a chance for complex formation between them by charge-transfer stabilization mechanisms could make possible a higher bioaccumulation as a mixture. Instead, toxicological results suggest an additive behaviour in the mixture performance, dominated by BaP, which is the key PAH controlling phase I metabolization in mussels, since is approx. three times more toxic. These experiments provide useful indications for a rapid assessment of PAHs kinetic bioconcentration in mussels.