Wednesday 31 January 2018

Fungicide residues affect the sensory properties and flavonoid composition of red wine

Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 66 (2018) 185-192

The influence of four fungicide treatments [viz., metrafenone, boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, fenhexamid and mepanipyrim, which are typically used to control downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)] on the composition of Tempranillo red wines was assessed by examining changes in phenolic composition, colour and aroma profile in wines from pesticide-treated grapes in relation to control wines made from untreated grapes. The results were also compared with those for wine of a previous vintage in order to ascertain whether fungicide-related changes were comparable to vintage-related changes. Only the boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment led to significant differences in wine of the 2013 vintage; thus, it increased the contents in monomeric anthocyanins (58%) and flavan-3-ols (36%), and also colour lightness (20%), but decreased the contribution of the ripe (42%) and fresh fruits (59%) odorant series. These results seemingly confirm that the presence of boscalid + kresoxim-methyl residues in must impairs the sensory quality of the resulting wine by diminishing its brightness and aroma. Differences varied markedly between years, which suggests that the course of the fermentation process is influenced not only by the composition of the grapes but also by the presence of the fungicide.

Evaluation of the neuroprotective and antidiabetic potential of phenol-rich extracts from virgin olive oils by in vitro assays

Food Research International, 106, 558-567, 2018

In this work, phenol-rich extracts from ‘Cornicabra’ and ‘Picual’ virgin-olive oils (EVOOs) were examined, for the first time, to establish their capacity to inhibit key enzymes involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and 5-lipoxygenase (LOX)), major depressive disorder (MDD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) (monoamine oxidases: hMAO-A and hMAO-B respectively), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (α-glucosidase and α-amylase). ‘Cornicabra’ displayed the best inhibitory activity against all enzymes, when compared to ‘Picual’: BuChE (IC50 = 156 ± 4 and 308 ± 33 mg mL−1), LOX (IC50 = 26 ± 0.5 and 37 ± 3 mg mL−1), hMAO-A (IC50 = 20 ± 2 and 37 ± 0.2 mg mL−1), hMAO-B (IC50 = 131 ± 7 and 215 ± 13 mg mL−1) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 154 ± 17 and 251 ± 31 mg mL−1), respectively. The behaviour observed can be associated with the higher content of secoiridoids, lignans and phenolic acids in ‘Cornicabra’ EVOO.

Monday 8 January 2018

Genotypic and phenotypic identi cation of olive cultivars from north-western Spain and characterization of their extra virgin olive oils in terms of fatty acid composition and minor compounds

Scientia Horticulturae, 2018

Galicia (NW Spain) is emerging as a new olive-growing region. Galician oil producers are currently striving to recover old autochthonous cultivars with a view to obtaining high quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In this work, a total of 32 trees were studied in order to established their identity and genetic relationships to the main cultivated material in the Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of 11 morphological features of the endocarp and 14 microsatellite markers allowed three different cultivars to be identi ed among the sampled trees. Compar- ison with the morphological and molecular pro les available in the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba (WOGBC) revealed that 24 trees (75%) were of the ‘Brava’ cultivar and 7 (22%) of the ‘Mansa’ cultivar. The other tree, labelled as Picuda, matched no speci c cultivar in WOGBC. Characterizing the oils obtained from the studied cultivars revealed a high potential for producing high-quality EVOOs of speci c origin.

Thursday 4 January 2018

Bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds from achenes as a new target for strawberry breeding programs

Food Chemistry 248 (2018) 155-165

Strawberry is a major natural source of bioactive compounds. Botanically, strawberry is an aggregate fruit consisting of a fleshy floral receptacle that bears a cluster of real dry fruits (achenes). Existing knowledge on the phenolic composition of achenes and its contribution to that of the whole fruit is limited. Also, the gastric and intestinal bioavailability of phenols is poorly known. In this work, a combination of spectrophotometric and HPLC–DAD methods was used to analyse the phenolic composition of whole fruits and achenes before and after in vitro digestion. Five different phenol families were identified. Also, achenes were found to contribute a sizeable fraction of phenolic acids and hydrolysable tannins in the whole fruit. Because the mere presence of phenolic compounds in a food matrix does not ensure their ready absorption and bioavailability, polyphenol potential bioavailability could be an effective selection criterion for strawberry breeding programs aimed at improving dietary healthiness.

Wednesday 3 January 2018

Aldehydes as additives in AOT-based microemulsions: influence upon electrical percolation

Tenside, Surfactants & Detergents, 2018

The influence of alkyl-aldehydes upon electric percolation of AOT-based microemulsions has been studied. The number of carbons in the hydrocarbon chain was varied between 0 and 5 atoms (chain length between 0 and 7.33Å). Two different behaviors were found, while the presence in the microemulsion of short chains aldehydes implies a decrease in the percolation temperature, aldehydes with 4 or 5 carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain increase the percolation threshold. These opposite behavior has ben justified in terms of aldehyde location in the microheterogeneous system.

Tuesday 2 January 2018

Screening of organic pollutants in pet hair samples and the significance of environmental factors

Science of The Total Environment, 625 (2018) 311–319

Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes. Concentrations from different classes of organochlorine, and organophosphate pesticides (OCPs, and OPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs and DL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were identified in the selected pet hair samples from Ourense (NW, Spain). We detected most of these pollutants in the selected hair pets. The mean concentrations found ranged from 89 to 6556 ng/g for OPEs, from 8.6 to 1031 ng/g for PAHs, from 8.6 to 256 ng/g for PBDEs, from 29 to 184 ng/g for OPPs, from 0.29 to 139 for OCPs, from 0.30 to 59 ng/g for NDL-PCBs and from 1.2 to 14 ng/g for DL-PCBs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of OPs in pets from North-West Spain and it could provide baseline information for future monitoring of OPs in the area.

Monday 1 January 2018

Changes of the shelf life of candelilla wax/tarbush bioactive based-nanocoated apples at industrial level conditions

Scientia Horticulturae  231 (2018) 43-48

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the candelilla wax-based nanocoating for increase the shelf life of apples at industrial level. Phytomolecules of tarbush were obtained and were added in the nanocoating for morphological characterization and quantification of nanoparticles. Phytomolecules of tarbush promoted a high amount of nanoparticles and a surface uniform and free from heterogeneity in the nanocoating. Apples fruit dipped for 10 s in nanocoating with phytomolecules of tarbush and without phytomolecules then were stored on marketing conditions at 22 ± 2 °C and refrigeration at 5 ± 2 °C, 90% RH at industrial level, while the uncoated fruit served as controls. Physicochemical changes were monitored during 8 weeks. A sensory evaluation of preference in taste and appearance was performed in the apples. Candelilla wax-based nanocoating with phytomolecules of tarbush was able to reduce significantly (P ˂ 0.05) the physicochemical changes in the apples. The results of the overall preference indicated that control apples were the most preferred in taste and appearance. Apples coated with nanocoating with phytomolecules of tarbush were the least preferred in appearance and taste. According to the results, phytomolecules of tarbush incorporated into the candelilla wax-based nanocoating is an alternative for increase shelf life of Golden delicious apples in marketing conditions and refrigeration at industrial level.