Nanobiotechnology has recently gained prominence as a fundamental branch of modern science and a novel epoch in the field of material researches. Due to a wide range of applications it attracts attention of many scientists from all over the world. Bionanomaterials are prepared using a variety of physical, chemical, and biological techniques and methods. Many different metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are reported to be produced by biological systems, including bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, yeasts, viruses, and plants. Among all of them, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), obtained through biosynthesis with the aid of plant-derived materials, appears to be a highly successful way to create a fast, clean, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly platform for the production and application of these bionanomaterials. This review focuses on the plant extract-derived ZnO NPs synthesis, with a special emphasis on the recent advances and applications of these nanomaterials.
Thursday 27 October 2022
Wednesday 26 October 2022
Sunday 23 October 2022
The International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce (INPST) and the power of Twitter networking exemplified through #INPST hashtag analysis
Saturday 22 October 2022
Tuesday 18 October 2022
During the previous few years, the relationship between the gut microbiota, metabolic disorders, and diet has come to light, especially due to the understanding of the mechanisms that particularly link the gut microbiota with obesity in animal models and clinical trials. Research has led to the understanding that the responses of individuals to dietary inputs vary remarkably therefore no single diet can be suggested to every individual. The variations are attributed to differences in the microbiome and host characteristics. In general, it is believed that the immanent nature of host-derived factors makes them difficult to modulate. However, diet can more easily shape the microbiome, potentially influencing human physiology through modulation of digestion, absorption, mucosal immune response, and the availability of bioactive compounds. Thus, diet could be useful to influence the physiology of the host, as well as to ameliorate various disorders. In the present study, we have described recent developments in understanding the disparities of gut microbiota populations between individuals and the primary role of diet-microbiota interactions in modulating human physiology. A deeper understanding of these relationships can be useful for proposing personalized nutrition strategies and nutrition-based therapeutic interventions to improve human health.
Monday 17 October 2022
The current global changes in economic, social, and technological production systems of food necessitate developing innovative solutions and strategies that ensure maximum utilization of food resources to produce desirable and wholesome food products. Food chemistry and related research activities are arguably the core of research activities that ensure the achievement of the above goals. This Research Topic is aimed at capturing prominent food chemistry research activities to provide recent insights and current research activities to meet the above goals. This Research Topic provides a balanced collection of original research, reviews, and new methods contributions, authored by experts in the field. The studies reported in the present Research Topic can be generally categorized into the following themes: food safety research that was concerned with the detection and quantification of pesticides and antimicrobial agents; studies on bioactive compounds, their stability and biofunctionalities; fractionation of pea protein, and others.
Sunday 16 October 2022
Comparison of Chromatic and Spectrophotometric Properties of White and Red Wines Produced in Galicia (Northwest Spain) by Applying PCA
Tuesday 11 October 2022
Advances in Fungal Phenaloenones—Natural Metabolites with Great Promise: Biosynthesis, Bioactivities, and an In Silico Evaluation of Their Potential as Human Glucose Transporter 1 Inhibitors
Phenaloenones are structurally unique aromatic polyketides that have been reported in both microbial and plant sources. They possess a hydroxy perinaphthenone three-fused-ring system and exhibit diverse bioactivities, such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-HIV properties, and tyrosinase, α-glucosidase, lipase, AchE (acetylcholinesterase), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme, and tyrosine phosphatase inhibition. Moreover, they have a rich nucleophilic nucleus that has inspired many chemists and biologists to synthesize more of these related derivatives. The current review provides an overview of the reported phenalenones with a fungal origin, including their structures, sources, biosynthesis, and bioactivities. Moreover, more than 135 metabolites have been listed, and 71 references have been cited. SuperPred, an artificial intelligence (AI) webserver, was used to predict the potential targets for selected phenalenones. Among these targets, we chose human glucose transporter 1 (hGLUT1) for an extensive in silico study, as it shows high probability and model accuracy. Among them, aspergillussanones C (60) and G (60) possessed the highest negative docking scores of −15.082 and −14.829 kcal/mol, respectively, compared to the native inhibitor of 5RE (score: −11.206 kcal/mol). The MD (molecular dynamics) simulation revealed their stability in complexes with GLUT1 at 100 ns. The virtual screening study results open up a new therapeutic approach by using some phenalenones as hGLUT1 inhibitors, which might be a potential target for cancer therapy.
Saturday 8 October 2022
Royal Jelly: Beneficial Properties and Synergistic Effects with Chemotherapeutic Drugs with Particular Emphasis in Anticancer Strategies
Cancer is one of the major causes of death globally. Currently, various methods are used to treat cancer, including radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy, all of which have serious adverse effects. A healthy lifestyle, especially a nutritional diet, plays a critical role in the treatment and prevention of many disorders, including cancer. The above notion, plus the trend in going back to nature, encourages consumers and the food industry to invest more in food products and to find potential candidates that can maintain human health. One of these agents, and a very notable food agent, is royal jelly (RJ), known to be produced by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular salivary glands of young nurse honeybees. RJ contains bioactive substances, such as carbohydrates, protein, lipids, peptides, mineral salts and polyphenols which contribute to the appreciated biological and pharmacological activities. Antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antibacterial impacts are among the well-recognized benefits. The combination of RJ or its constituents with anticancer drugs has synergistic effects on cancer disorders, enhancing the drug’s effectiveness or reducing its side effects. The purpose of the present review is to emphasize the possible interactions between chemotherapy and RJ, or its components, in treating cancer illnesses.
Friday 7 October 2022
The Chemical, Microbiological and Volatile Composition of Kefir-like Beverages Produced from Red Table Grape Juice in Repeated 24-h Fed-Batch Subcultures
The aim of this work was to study the production of kefir-like beverages via the fed-batch fermentation of red table grape juice at initial pHs of 3.99 (fermentation A) and 5.99 (fermentation B) with kefir grains during 4 repeated 24-h fed-batch subcultures. All kefir-like beverages (KLB) were characterized by low alcoholic grade (≤3.6%, v/v) and lactic and acetic acid concentrations. The beverages obtained from fermentation B had lower concentrations of sugars and higher microbial counts than the KLB obtained in fermentation A. Additionally, the KLB samples from fermentation B were the most aromatic and had the highest contents of alcohols, esters, aldehydes and organic acids, in contrast with the nonfermented juice and KLB from fermentation A. These results indicate the possibility of obtaining red table grape KLB with their own distinctive aromatic characteristics and high content in probiotic viable cells, contributing to the valorization of this fruit.
Thursday 6 October 2022
Phytochemical Profiling, Mineral Elements, and Biological Activities of Artemisia campestris L. Grown in Algeria
Artemisia campestris L. is commonly used in folk medicine due to its antioxidant, antidiabetic, nutritional, and culinary properties. Our study assessed the total phenolics contents, antioxidant, and pharmacological activities of various organic extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Artemisia campestris, and its mineral elements and chemical profile were analyzed. ICP-OES was used to analyze the mineral profile and the LC-MS/MS analysis was used to characterize the phytochemical profiling. A series of antioxidant tests were carried out using DPPH, ABTS, beta-carotene, GOR, RP, CUPRAC, and O-Phenanthroline assays. In vitro potent inhibitory actions of A. campestris extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-cholinesterase, anti-lipase and anti-diabetic activities. The photoprotective effect of the plant was measured by the sun protection factor. The most powerful inhibitor of α-amylase was AcPEE (IC50 = 11.79 ± 0.14 μg/mL), which also showed a significant butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effect (IC50 = 93.50 ± 1.60 μg/mL). At IC50 = 23.16 ± 0.19 μg/mL, AcEAE showed the most powerful inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase. A. campestris was found to have a strong photoprotective ability, absorbing UV radiations with SPF values ranging from 26.07 ± 0.22 to 40.76 ± 0.11. The results showed that A. campestris extract has strong antioxidant activity in all the test samples except for the carotene bleaching assay. The LC/MS-MS results showed that AcDE, AcEAE, and AcBE identified 11 compounds belonging to Polyphenols Compounds. Our result also showed that A. campestris contains a high concentration of essential minerals, including macro-and micro-elements with their values close to the FAO’s recommended concentration. A. campestris has the capacity to improve pharmaceutical formulations, health, and medical research, due to its compositions and potent biological properties.