Thursday 28 April 2022

Humic Acids Aggregates as Microheterogeneous Reaction Media: Alkaline Hydrolysis Reactions

 Compounds 2022, 2(2), 131-143

The influence of humic aggregates in a water solution upon the chemical stability under basic conditions of different substrates was reviewed. The kinetic behavior of each substrate was modeled in terms of a micellar pseudophase model.

Wednesday 27 April 2022

Reactivity of a Recombinant Esterase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Aqueous and Organic Media

 Microorganisms 2022, 10(5), 915

The thermoalkalophilic membrane-associated esterase E34Tt from Thermus thermophilus HB27 was cloned and expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis (KLEST-3S esterase). The recombinant enzyme was tested as a biocatalyst in aqueous and organic media. It displayed a high thermal stability and was active in the presence of 10% (v/v) organic solvents and 1% (w/v) detergents. KLEST-3S hydrolysed triglycerides of various acyl chains, which is a rare characteristic among carboxylic ester hydrolases from extreme thermophiles, with maximum activity on tributyrin. It also displayed interfacial activation towards triacetin. KLEST-3S was also tested as a biocatalyst in organic media. The esterase provided high yields for the acetylation of alcohols. In addition, KLEST-3S catalyzed the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-ibuprofen methyl ester (87% ee). Our results indicate that KLEST-3S may be a robust and efficient biocatalyst for application in industrial bioconversions.

Tuesday 26 April 2022

Genetic variability, combining ability and molecular diversity-based parental line selection for heterosis breeding in field corn (Zea mays L.)

 Mol Biol Rep 49, 4517–4524 (2022)

The demand of maize crop is increasing day by day, hence to reduce the production and demand gap, there is a need to extract the high yielding parental lines to improve per se yield of the hybrids, which could help to enhance the productivity in maize crops.

Methods and results
The present investigation was carried out to select the best medium maturing inbred lines, among a set of 118 inbred lines. Based on the Duncan multiple range test, out of 118 lines, 16 inbred lines were selected on the basis of its high yield per se and flowering time. The molecular diversity was carried out using SSR markers linked to heterotic QTL and up on diversity analysis it classified selected genotypes in to three distinct groups. Among the selected inbred lines, a wider genetic variability and molecular diversity were observed. A total of 39 test crosses were generated after classifying 16 inbred lines in to three testers and thirteen lines (based on per se grain yield and molecular diversity) and crossing them in line × tester manner.

Combining ability analysis of these parental lines showed that female parents, PML 109, PML 110, PML 111, PML 114 and PML 116 showed additive effect for KRN and grain yield, whereas male parents, PML 46, and PML 93 showed epistatic effect for KRN and PML 102 showed epistatic effect for grain yield. The generated information in the present investigation may be exploited for heterosis breeding in filed corn.

Key messages
To tackle the balanced dietary requirement of Indian population; we focused to enhance the productivity of maize hybrids using genetically broad based, elite, diverse inbred lines. Combination of selection criterion, not only augment the productivity but also improves the quality of hybrid/s.

An Overview of Traditional Uses, Phytochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Edible Fruits of European and Asian Cornus Species

 Foods 2022, 11(9), 1240

Cornus species are widely distributed in central and southern Europe, east Africa, southwest Asia, and America. Several species are known for edible fruits, especially Cornus mas and Cornus officinalis. These delicious fruits, characterized by their remarkable nutritional and biological values, are widely used in traditional medicine. In contrast to the other edible Cornus species, C. mas and C. officinalis are the most studied for which little information is available on the main phytochemicals and their biological activities. Fruits are characterised by several classes of secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, anthocyanins, tannins, triterpenoids, and iridoids. The available phytochemical data show that the different classes of metabolites have not been systematically studied. However, these edible species are all worthy of interest because similarities have been found. Thus, this review describes the traditional uses of Cornus species common in Europe and Asia, a detailed classification of the bioactive compounds that characterize the fruits, and their beneficial health effects. Cornus species are a rich source of phytochemicals with nutritional and functional properties that justify the growing interest in these berries, not only for applications in the food industry but also useful for their medicinal properties.

Thursday 14 April 2022

Effects of Torreya grandis Kernel Oil on Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Flora in C57BL/6J Mice

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 4472751

Recent experimental studies have shown that vegetable oil supplementation ameliorates high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in mice via modulating hepatic lipid metabolism and the composition of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the Torreya grandis kernel oil (TKO) rich in unpolysaturated fatty acid against hyperlipidemia and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Methods. Normal mice were randomly divided into three groups: ND (normal diet), LO (normal diet supplement with 4% TKO), and HO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Hyperlipidemia mice were randomly divided into two groups: HFN (normal diet) and HFO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Blood biochemistry and histomorphology were observed; liver RNA-seq, metabolomics, and gut 16S rRNA were analyzed. 

Continuous supplementation of TKO in normal mice significantly ameliorated serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation, decreased blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA), and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. According to GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathways, and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) might be involved in the metabolism of lipids. High-dose TKO improved gut alpha diversity and beta diversity showing that the microbial community compositions of the five groups were different. 

Supplementation of TKO functions in the prevention of hyperlipidemia via regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and enhancing microbiota richness in normal mice. Our study is the first to reveal the mechanism of TKO regulating blood lipid levels by using multiomics and promote further studies on TKO for their biological activity.

Wednesday 13 April 2022

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. Using deep eutectic solvent: optimization, identification, and comparison with traditional methods

 Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 86, 106005, 2022

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) coupled with deep eutectic solvent (DES) is a novel, efficient and green extraction method for phytochemicals. In this study, the effects of 16 DESs coupled with UAE on the extraction rate of polyphenols from Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (P. scandens), an edible and medicinal herb, were investigated. DES synthesised with choline chloride and ethylene glycol at a 1:2 M ratio resulted in the highest extractability. Moreover, the effects of extraction parameters were investigated by using a two-level factorial experiment followed by response surface methodology The optimal parameters (water content in DES of 49.2%, the actual ultrasonic power of 72.4 W, and ultrasonic time of 9.7 min) resulted in the optimal total flavonoid content (TFC) (27.04 mg CE/g DW), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (373.27 μmol Fe(Ⅱ)E/g DW) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+) value (48.64 μmol TE/g DW), closely matching the experimental results. Furthermore, a comparison study demonstrated that DES-UAE afforded the higher TFC and FRAP value than traditional extraction methods. 36 individual polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in P. scandens extracts, and of which 30 were found in the extracts obtained by DES-UAE. Additionally, DES-UAE afforded the highest sum of individual polyphenolic compound content. These results revealed that DES-UAE enhanced the extraction efficiency for polyphenols and provided a scientific basis for further processing and utilization of P. scandens.

Wednesday 6 April 2022

Blockchain: An emerging novel technology to upgrade the current fresh fruit supply chain

 Trends in Food Science & Technology, 124, 1-12, 2022

With the globalization of trade, the current fresh fruit supply chain now incorporates multiple entities, wide distribution, and intricate transactions. This brings about the issues of information tamper resistance, supply-demand relationship, and traceable supervision. Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology with advantages of tamper resistance of information. It is expected to solve the problem of transaction resource allocation among several untrusted participants in the fresh fruit supply chain.

Scope and approach
This article recommends the use of blockchain to upgrade the current fresh fruit supply chain, and highlights the advantages of blockchain in supply chain management. The obstacles faced by the implementation of this technology in relation to participants’ attitude, fruit preservation, and blockchain technical loopholes have been analyzed as well.

Key findings and conclusions
Blockchain can upgrade fresh fruit supply chain. It collects and uploads reliable data from fruit picking to final consumption through IoT-related technologies. After hash encryption and consensus verification, it is transmitted to P2P network for sharing. It balances the tension between supply and demand, brings funds for enterprises, simplifies supervision and traceability. Smart contracts reduce the cost of communication and trust. However, blockchain has some limitations such as difficulties in incorporating architecture, reliance on the IoT, immature fruit preservation technology, unclear legal supervision, lack of reference cases, and technical loopholes.