Monday, 31 January 2022

Pigment Composition of Nine Brown Algae from the Iberian Northwestern Coastline: Influence of the Extraction Solvent

 Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 113



Brown algae are ubiquitously distributed in the NW coastline of the Iberian Peninsula, where they stand as an underexploited resource. In this study, five solvents were applied to the extraction of pigments from nine brown algae, followed by their determination and quantification by HPLC-DAD. A total of 13 compounds were detected: Six were identified as chlorophylls, six were classified as xanthophylls, and one compound was reported as a carotene. Fucoxanthin was reported in all extracts, which is the most prominent pigment of these algae. Among them, L. saccharina and U. pinnatifida present the highest concentration of fucoxanthin (4.5–4.7 mg∙g−1 dry weight). Ethanol and acetone were revealed as the most efficient solvents for the extraction of pigments, showing a maximal value of 11.9 mg of total pigments per gram of dry alga obtained from the ethanolic extracts of H. elongata, followed by the acetonic extracts of L. ochroleuca. Indeed, ethanol was also revealed as the most efficient solvent according to its high extraction yield along all species evaluated. Our results supply insights into the pigment composition of brown algae, opening new perspectives on their commercial exploitation by food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries.

Monday, 10 January 2022

Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis

 Water 2022, 14(2), 180


River sediment can be used to measure the pollution level in natural water, as it serves as one of the vital environmental indicators. This study aims to assess heavy metal pollution namely Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) in Surma River. Further, it compares potential ecological risk index values using Hakanson Risk Index (RI) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach to evaluate the environmental risks caused by these heavy metals. in the study area. With obtained results, enrichment of individual heavy metals in the study area was found in the order of Ni > Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Zn. Also, variance in MCS index contributed by studied metals was in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu. None of the heavy metals, except Ni, showed moderate contamination of the sediment. Risk index values from RI and MCS provide valuable insights in the contamination profile of the river, indicating the studied river is currently under low ecological risk for the studied heavy metals. This study can be utilized to assess the susceptibility of the river sediment to heavy metal pollution near an urban core, and to have a better understanding of the contamination profile of a river.

Saturday, 8 January 2022

Weed pressure determines the chemical profile of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its allelochemicals potential


 Pest Management Science, 78, 1605-1619, 2022



BACKGROUND

Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) are important infesting weeds of field crops. Herbicides are mostly used for weed suppression, while their environmental toxicity and resistance in weeds against them demand considering alternative options, such as the use of allelopathic crops for weed management. Wheat is an important allelopathic crop and present research focused on the identification and quantification of benzoxazinoids (BXZs) and polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) of the wheat accession ‘Ursita’ and to screen its allelopathic impact on P. oleracea and Lolium rigidum through equal-compartment-agar (ECA) method.


RESULTS

Weed germination, radicle length, biomass and photosynthetic pigments were altered following co-growth of weeds with Ursita for 10-day. Root exudates from Ursita reduced (29–60%) the seedling growth and photosynthetic pigments of Lolium rigidum depending on co-culture conditions of planting density. Weed pressure caused significant increase in the production of phenolic acids (vanillic, ferulic, syringic and p-coumaric acids) and root exudation of BXZs, in particular benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA), 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin3-one (HBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) in wheat tissues (shoots, roots) and exudate in root rhizosphere agar medium in response to co-cultivation with Lolium rigidum and P. oleracea, depending on weed/crop density.


CONCLUSION

The work revealed that Ursita is allelopathic in nature and can be used in breeding programs to enhance its allelopathic activity. Meanwhile, there are opportunities to explore allelopathic effect of wheat cultivars to control P. oleracea and Lolium rigidum under field conditions. © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

Friday, 7 January 2022

Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Interconnected Pathways during Spinal Cord Injury

 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 8100195



Despite the progression in targeting the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and spinal cord injury (SCI), there is a lack of effective treatments. Moreover, conventional therapies suffer from associated side effects and low efficacy, raising the need for finding potential alternative therapies. In this regard, a comprehensive review was done regarding revealing the main neurological dysregulated pathways and providing alternative therapeutic agents following SCI. From the mechanistic point, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are major upstream orchestras of cross-linked dysregulated pathways (e.g., apoptosis, autophagy, and extrinsic mechanisms) following SCI. It urges the need for developing multitarget therapies against SCI complications. Polyphenols, as plant-derived secondary metabolites, have the potential of being introduced as alternative therapeutic agents to pave the way for treating SCI. Such secondary metabolites presented modulatory effects on neuronal oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and extrinsic axonal dysregulated pathways in the onset and progression of SCI. In the present review, the potential role of phenolic compounds as critical phytochemicals has also been revealed in regulating upstream dysregulated oxidative stress/inflammatory signaling mediators and extrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration after SCI in preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, the coadministration of polyphenols and stem cells has shown a promising strategy for improving post-SCI complications.



Thursday, 6 January 2022

Benefits, toxicity and current market of cannabidiol in edibles

 Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition



The commercialization of products with cannabidiol (CBD) has undergone a significant increase. These products can be presented in different forms such as baked goods, gummies or beverages (such as kombucha, beer or teas, among others) using wide concentrations ranges. The use of CBD in edibles favors its consumption, for medicinal users, during the work week, avoid its possible social stigma and facilitates its transport. These products can be purchased on store shelves and online. There is a large number of specialized studies, in which the possible advantages of CBD consumption are described in the preclinical and clinical trials. It is also necessary to recognize the existence of other works revealing that the excessive consumption of CBD could have some repercussions on health. In this review, it is analyzed the composition and properties of Cannabis sativa L., the health benefits of cannabinoids (focusing on CBD), its consumption, its possible toxicological effects, a brief exposition of the extraction process, and a collection of different products that contain CBD in its composition.