Monday 31 January 2022

Pigment Composition of Nine Brown Algae from the Iberian Northwestern Coastline: Influence of the Extraction Solvent

 Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 113

Brown algae are ubiquitously distributed in the NW coastline of the Iberian Peninsula, where they stand as an underexploited resource. In this study, five solvents were applied to the extraction of pigments from nine brown algae, followed by their determination and quantification by HPLC-DAD. A total of 13 compounds were detected: Six were identified as chlorophylls, six were classified as xanthophylls, and one compound was reported as a carotene. Fucoxanthin was reported in all extracts, which is the most prominent pigment of these algae. Among them, L. saccharina and U. pinnatifida present the highest concentration of fucoxanthin (4.5–4.7 mg∙g−1 dry weight). Ethanol and acetone were revealed as the most efficient solvents for the extraction of pigments, showing a maximal value of 11.9 mg of total pigments per gram of dry alga obtained from the ethanolic extracts of H. elongata, followed by the acetonic extracts of L. ochroleuca. Indeed, ethanol was also revealed as the most efficient solvent according to its high extraction yield along all species evaluated. Our results supply insights into the pigment composition of brown algae, opening new perspectives on their commercial exploitation by food, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries.

Monday 24 January 2022

Polyphenols: A first evidence in the synergism and bioactivities

 Food Rev. Int. 2022

Polyphenols are natural compounds and the most plentiful with synergistic properties contributing to potential health benefits. This review describes the synergistic interactions of polyphenolic compounds; as yet, no literature review has been undertaken to consider the experimental evidence of synergistic effects of polyphenols. The polyphenolic compounds claimed to have synergistic activities are highly effective against oxidation, peptic ulcers, myocardial infarction, tumors, and a variety of other conditions. In addition, anticancer activity via apoptosis and antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and estrogenic behaviors have also been reported. Apart from the synergistic effects of polyphenols, this review also illustrates their specific health benefits too and bioavailability in humans. The toxicity of some polyphenolic agents, including antinutritional effects, chronic nephrotoxicity, reduction in net protein utilization and antiluteinizing hormone, and tumor development, is also evaluated. Synergistic treatment approaches may be effective in the treatment of many diseases. These findings provide information about the benefits of polyphenol compounds in combination, which could be useful for future studies.

Tuesday 18 January 2022

A dual-signal fluorescent sensor based on MoS2 and CdTe quantum dots for tetracycline detection in milk

 Food Chem. 378, 132076 (2022)

A dual-signal fluorescent sensor was developed for tetracycline (TET) detection in milk with excellent reproducibility and stability. In this protocol, molybdenum disulfide quantum dots (MoS2 QDs) with blue fluorescence and cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) with yellow fluorescence were synthesized to establish the MoS2/CdTe-based sensor with two fluorescence emission peaks at 433 nm and 573 nm. With the addition of TET, the fluorescence of MoS2/CdTe were quenched by photoinduced electron transfer (PET), and the fluorescence of CdTe QDs were quenched more obvious than MoS2 QDs. With the strategy, a calibration curve was established between the TET concentration in the range of 0.1–1 μM and the ratio of fluorescence intensity at 573 nm and 433 nm (F573/F433). Furthermore, the dual-signal sensor was applied for TET detection in milk samples with the recovery of 95.53–104.22% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5%, indicating the strong application potential.

Monday 17 January 2022

Chitosan and flavonoid glycosides are promising combination partners for enhanced inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in roast beef

 Food Chemistry, 375, 131859, 2022

The effects of different kinds of chitosan, oligomer (ChiO) and monomer (Gluco), and the combinations of polymer (Chi) or ChiO with flavonoid aglycones and glycosides against the formation of major HAs were investigated to find out potential combination partners for enhanced suppression of HA formation. Results in roast beef patties showed ChiO and Gluco significantly inhibited PhIP and MeIQx formation by 43–80% and 31–57%, respectively. Of which, ChiO was the most effective. In combinations with flavonoid glycosides (phloridzin, rutin and hesperidzin, respectively), Chi, but not ChiO, generated enhanced inhibitory effects. Further analysis showed Chi and phloridzin combined at a ratio of 1:1 was the most promising, especially in inhibiting PhIP, and the mechanism behind involved: 1) water retention by Chi, and 2) reduction of phenylalanine availability by phloridzin. These findings suggest that appropriate combination of Chi and flavonoid glycosides contributes to significant improvement in the safety of meat products.

Sunday 16 January 2022

Development, characterization and stability of a white cachama pâté-type product (Piaractus brachypomus)

 Food Chem. 375, 131660, 2022

The objective of the work was to formulate, characterize and evaluate the stability of a product based on white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). From four lipid sources (pork back fat, canola oil, olive oil or sacha inchi oil), the one with the highest acceptance rate was selected based on the acceptance index and sensory characteristics. The formulation was optimized using the response surface method; 15 formulations were used in triplicate, evaluating the pH, moisture, colour and sensory acceptance values. The macronutrient composition and lipid profile of the optimal formulation was determined; its stability was evaluated under refrigeration conditions by measuring lipid and protein degradation, changes in colour, texture, changes at the microbiological and sensory levels. It was found an optimal proportion of inclusion of 50% white cachama pasta, 21% canola oil and 23% water. The stability of the final product obtained was 42 days, with 82% of acceptability index. This product could be an alternative to other pâté-type products from other species.

Saturday 15 January 2022

Effects of different feeding regimes on muscle metabolism and its association with meat quality of Tibetan sheep

 Food Chem. 374, 131611, 2022

This study aimed to explore the effects of different feeding regimes on muscle metabolism and its association with meat quality of Tibetan sheep through correlation analysis of meat quality and differential metabolites using untargeted and targeted metabolomics. The untargeted metabolome was detected by UHPLC-QTOF-MS, and the targeted metabolome was detected by UHPLC-QQQ-MS (amino acids) and GC–MS (fatty acids). Based on the researched results, the nutritional quality of meat, including the content of protein and fat and the edible quality of meat, including tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC), texture, and flavor of Tibetan sheep were superior in the stall-feeding group (GBZ) than in the traditional grazing group (CBZ). In the GBZ group, the key upregulated metabolites and metabolic pathways were dominated by essential amino acids (EAAs) and amino acid metabolism as well as the key downregulated metabolites and metabolic pathways were dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lipid metabolism. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the results of untargeted metabolomics and some phenotypic data, including shear force, cooking loss, drip loss, chewiness, elasticity, flavor, and the content of protein and fat. Taken together, stall-feeding would be appropriate for the production of Tibetan mutton, offering better mouthfeel and higher nutrition by altering the muscle metabolism and increasing the beneficial compound deposition in the muscle.

Friday 14 January 2022

Impact of chiral tebuconazole on the flavor components and color attributes of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines at the enantiomeric level

 Food Chem. 373, Part B, 131577, 2022

The impact of chiral tebuconazole on the flavor and appearance of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were systematically studied. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry and headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry qualitatively and quantitatively identified the flavor components, and a photographic colorimeter was used for color attribute analysis. Tebuconazole enantiomers had different effects on the flavor and appearance of young wines, especially R-tebuconazole. The flavor differences were mainly manifested in fruity and floral characteristics of the wine due to changes in the concentrations of acids, alcohols, and esters; R-tebuconazole alters the concentrations of key flavor compounds to the greatest extent. Tebuconazole treatment changes the color of young wines, with the final red shade of wine being control group > rac-tebuconazole ≥ S-tebuconazole > R-tebuconazole. Since chiral tebuconazole negatively alters wine, grapes treated with chiral pesticides should be subject to stricter quality control during processing.

Thursday 13 January 2022

Freezing characteristics and relative permittivity of rice flour gel in pulsed electric field assisted freezing

 Food Chem. 373, Part A, 131449, 2022

This study investigated the effect of pulsed electric field assisted freezing treatment on the freezing characteristics of rice flour gel under output voltages varying from 0 to 25 kV. The results indicated that by applying a pulsed electric field, the phase change time decreased. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that pulsed electric field treatment led to the formation of rounder and smaller ice crystals. For further understanding and quantifying the interaction between rice flour gel and a pulsed electric field, the relative permittivity of rice flour gel with and without the addition of salt was measured between 100 and 3100 kHz and −20 and 20 °C. Relative permittivity increased with decreasing frequency or increasing temperature, and sharp variation was observed during the phase transition period. In addition, salt was proved to be an effective additive for increasing relative permittivity.

Wednesday 12 January 2022

Cellular antioxidant potential and inhibition of foodborne pathogens by a sesquiterpene ilimaquinone in cold storaged ground chicken and under temperature-abuse condition

 Food Chem. 373, Part A, 131392, 2022

A sesquiterpene quinone, ilimaquinone, was accessed for its cellular antioxidant efficacy and possible antimicrobial mechanism of action against foodborne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) in vitro and in vivo. Ilimaquinone was found to be protective against H2O2-induced oxidative stress as validated by the reduction in the ROS levels, including increasing expression of SOD1 and SOD2 enzymes. Furthermore, ilimaquinone evoked MIC against S. aureus and E. coli within the range of 125–250 µg/mL. Ilimaquinone established its antimicrobial mode of action against both tested pathogens as evident by bacterial membrane depolarization, loss of nuclear genetic material, potassium ion, and release of extracellular ATP, as well as compromised membrane permeabilization and cellular component damage. Also, ilimaquinone showed no teratogenic effect against zebrafish, suggesting its nontoxic nature. Moreover, ilimaquinone significantly reduced the S. aureus count without affecting the sensory properties and color values of cold-storaged ground chicken meat even under temperature abuse condition.

Tuesday 11 January 2022

Stability and antioxidant capacity of epigallocatechin gallate in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium

 Food Chem. 366, 130521, 2022

Though the instability of polyphenols in cell culture experiment has been investigated previously, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear yet. Therefore, in this study, the stability of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cell culture medium DMEM was investigated at 4 °C and 37 °C via UPLC-MS-MS analysis followed by determination of the antioxidant capacity of EGCG. EGCG was instable in DMEM and formed various degradation products derived from its dimer with increasing incubation time with many isomers being formed at both temperatures. The dimer products were more stable at 4 °C than at 37 °C. The structure and formation mechanism of five products were analyzed with four unidentified. Ascorbic acid significantly improved the stability of EGCG by protecting EGCG from auto-oxidation in DMEM, particularly at 4 °C. The antioxidative activity of EGCG in DMEM was determined by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay. The antioxidative properties of EGCG continuously decreased over 8 h in DMEM, which was consistent with its course of degradation.

Monday 10 January 2022

Assessment of the Ecological Risk from Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediment of River Surma, Bangladesh: Coupled Approach of Monte Carlo Simulation and Multi-Component Statistical Analysis

 Water 2022, 14(2), 180

River sediment can be used to measure the pollution level in natural water, as it serves as one of the vital environmental indicators. This study aims to assess heavy metal pollution namely Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) in Surma River. Further, it compares potential ecological risk index values using Hakanson Risk Index (RI) and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach to evaluate the environmental risks caused by these heavy metals. in the study area. With obtained results, enrichment of individual heavy metals in the study area was found in the order of Ni > Pb > Cd > Mn > Cu > Zn. Also, variance in MCS index contributed by studied metals was in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu. None of the heavy metals, except Ni, showed moderate contamination of the sediment. Risk index values from RI and MCS provide valuable insights in the contamination profile of the river, indicating the studied river is currently under low ecological risk for the studied heavy metals. This study can be utilized to assess the susceptibility of the river sediment to heavy metal pollution near an urban core, and to have a better understanding of the contamination profile of a river.

Sunday 9 January 2022

Valorization of kiwi agricultural waste and industry by-products by recovering bioactive compounds and applications as food additives: A circular economy model

 Food Chem. 370, 131315, 2022

Currently, agricultural production generates large amounts of organic waste, both from the maintenance of farms and crops (agricultural wastes) and from the industrialization of the product (food industry waste). In the case of Actinidia cultivation, agricultural waste groups together leaves, flowers, stems and roots while food industry by-products are represented by discarded fruits, skin and seeds. All these matrices are now underexploited and so, they can be revalued as a natural source of ingredients to be applied in food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industries. Kiwifruit composition (phenolic compounds, volatile compounds, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, etc.) is an outstanding basis, especially for its high content in vitamin C and phenolic compounds. These compounds possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial activities, among other beneficial properties for health, but stand out for their digestive enhancement and prebiotic role. Although the biological properties of kiwi fruit have been analyzed, few studies show the high content of compounds with biological functions present in these by-products. Therefore, agricultural and food industry wastes derived from processing kiwi are regarded as useful matrices for the development of innovative applications in the food (pectins, softeners, milk coagulants, and colorants), cosmetic (ecological pigments) and pharmaceutical industry (fortified, functional, nutraceutical, or prebiotic foods). This strategy will provide economic and environmental benefits, turning this industry into a sustainable and environmentally friendly production system, promoting a circular and sustainable economy.

Saturday 8 January 2022

Weed pressure determines the chemical profile of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its allelochemicals potential

 Pest Management Science, 78, 1605-1619, 2022


Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) are important infesting weeds of field crops. Herbicides are mostly used for weed suppression, while their environmental toxicity and resistance in weeds against them demand considering alternative options, such as the use of allelopathic crops for weed management. Wheat is an important allelopathic crop and present research focused on the identification and quantification of benzoxazinoids (BXZs) and polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) of the wheat accession ‘Ursita’ and to screen its allelopathic impact on P. oleracea and Lolium rigidum through equal-compartment-agar (ECA) method.


Weed germination, radicle length, biomass and photosynthetic pigments were altered following co-growth of weeds with Ursita for 10-day. Root exudates from Ursita reduced (29–60%) the seedling growth and photosynthetic pigments of Lolium rigidum depending on co-culture conditions of planting density. Weed pressure caused significant increase in the production of phenolic acids (vanillic, ferulic, syringic and p-coumaric acids) and root exudation of BXZs, in particular benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA), 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin3-one (HBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) in wheat tissues (shoots, roots) and exudate in root rhizosphere agar medium in response to co-cultivation with Lolium rigidum and P. oleracea, depending on weed/crop density.


The work revealed that Ursita is allelopathic in nature and can be used in breeding programs to enhance its allelopathic activity. Meanwhile, there are opportunities to explore allelopathic effect of wheat cultivars to control P. oleracea and Lolium rigidum under field conditions. © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

Friday 7 January 2022

Effects of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Interconnected Pathways during Spinal Cord Injury

 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 8100195

Despite the progression in targeting the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and spinal cord injury (SCI), there is a lack of effective treatments. Moreover, conventional therapies suffer from associated side effects and low efficacy, raising the need for finding potential alternative therapies. In this regard, a comprehensive review was done regarding revealing the main neurological dysregulated pathways and providing alternative therapeutic agents following SCI. From the mechanistic point, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are major upstream orchestras of cross-linked dysregulated pathways (e.g., apoptosis, autophagy, and extrinsic mechanisms) following SCI. It urges the need for developing multitarget therapies against SCI complications. Polyphenols, as plant-derived secondary metabolites, have the potential of being introduced as alternative therapeutic agents to pave the way for treating SCI. Such secondary metabolites presented modulatory effects on neuronal oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and extrinsic axonal dysregulated pathways in the onset and progression of SCI. In the present review, the potential role of phenolic compounds as critical phytochemicals has also been revealed in regulating upstream dysregulated oxidative stress/inflammatory signaling mediators and extrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration after SCI in preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, the coadministration of polyphenols and stem cells has shown a promising strategy for improving post-SCI complications.

Thursday 6 January 2022

Benefits, toxicity and current market of cannabidiol in edibles

 Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

The commercialization of products with cannabidiol (CBD) has undergone a significant increase. These products can be presented in different forms such as baked goods, gummies or beverages (such as kombucha, beer or teas, among others) using wide concentrations ranges. The use of CBD in edibles favors its consumption, for medicinal users, during the work week, avoid its possible social stigma and facilitates its transport. These products can be purchased on store shelves and online. There is a large number of specialized studies, in which the possible advantages of CBD consumption are described in the preclinical and clinical trials. It is also necessary to recognize the existence of other works revealing that the excessive consumption of CBD could have some repercussions on health. In this review, it is analyzed the composition and properties of Cannabis sativa L., the health benefits of cannabinoids (focusing on CBD), its consumption, its possible toxicological effects, a brief exposition of the extraction process, and a collection of different products that contain CBD in its composition.

Wednesday 5 January 2022

Coffee silverskin: Characterization of B-vitamins, macronutrients, minerals and phytosterols

 Food Chem. 372, 131188, 2022

The present study assessed the nutritional composition of coffee silverskin (CSS) obtained from arabica roasted coffee. Following validated analytical methods, CSS resulted to be a high source of proteins (14.2 g/100 g) and dietary fibers (51.5 g/100 g). Moreover, the mineral analysis revealed high contents of calcium (1.1 g/100 g) and potassium (1.0 g/100 g). To date, this study provided the widest mineral profile of CSS with 30 minerals targeted including 23 microminerals with high levels of iron (238.0 mg/kg), manganese (46.7 mg/kg), copper (37.9 mg/kg), and zinc (31.9 mg/kg). Moreover, vitamins B2 (0.18–0.2 mg/kg) and B3 (2.5–3.1 mg/kg) were studied and reported for the first time in CSS. β-sitosterol (77.1 mg/kg), campesterol, stigmasterol, and Δ5-avenasterol, were also observed from the phytosterol analysis of CSS with a total level of 98.4 mg/kg. This rich nutritional profile highlights the potential values of CSS for innovative reuses in bioactive ingredients development.

Tuesday 4 January 2022

Investigation and dynamic profiling of oligopeptides, free amino acids and derivatives during Pu-erh tea fermentation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

 Food Chem. 371, 131176, 2022

Microbial fermentation is the critical step of Pu-erh tea manufacture, which will induce dramatic changes in the chemical composition and content of tea. In this research, we applied multi-methods based on UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS to profile the dynamic changes of oligopeptides, free amino acids, and derivatives (OPADs) during Pu-erh fermentation and predicted the potential bioactivities in silico. A total of 60 oligopeptides, 18 free amino acids, and 42 amino acid derivatives were identified, and the contents of most of them decreased after fermentation. But several N-acetyl amino acids increased 7–36 times after fermentation, and they might be the potential inhibitors of neurokinin-1 receptor. Moreover, the results of metamicrobiology showed Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus luchuensis were more prominent to metabolize protein, oligopeptides, and amino acids. Overall, these findings provide valuable insights about dynamic variations of OPADs during Pu-erh tea fermentation and are beneficial for guiding practical fermentation and quality control of Pu-erh tea.

Monday 3 January 2022

Starch-digesting product analysis based on the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry method to evaluate the inhibition of flavonoids on pancreatic α-amylase

 Food Chem. 372, 131175, 2022

An accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method is presented to characterize starch digestion by α-amylase and measure the inhibition properties of flavonoids against α-amylase in vitro. Eleven products were found as 1 → 4 linkage glucose oligosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) from 2 to 12. The products with DPs of 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 had higher yields. The product with DP of 9 had the highest yields, which first increased and then decreased with the reaction time. Pelargonidin has the best inhibition activity on all enzyme products. The 3′-hydroxyl of B-ring enhanced the inhibition activity of flavonol and flavone but weakened that of anthocyanin. The C-ring 3-hydroxyl increased the inhibition effect of flavonol on maltose but decreased that on the products with higher DPs than flavone. The HILIC-MS method can provide more detailed information on enzyme products for the study of flavonoids inhibiting α-amylase.

Sunday 2 January 2022

A new HPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 36 polyphenols in blueberry, strawberry and their commercial products and determination of antioxidant activity

 Food Chem. 367, 130743, 2022

Berry fruits consumption has increased in recent years because they are rich sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. The aim of the present work was to develop a new comprehensive and fast HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 36 phenolic compounds (7 anthocyanins, 9 flavonols, 4 flavan-3-ols, 2 dihydrochalcones, 2 flavanones and 12 phenolic acids) present in blueberry, strawberry, and their fruit jam. Blueberry fruits showed higher contents of anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, while strawberry fruits exhibited higher contents of flavan-3-ols, dihydrochalcones and flavanones. Anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in both berries. Furthermore, the higher total phenolic content in the blueberry fruit and jam justified their greater antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH free radical assay, compared to strawberry. In conclusion, this new HPLC-MS/MS method is useful and reliable for quality control and authentication analyses of blueberry and strawberry fruits and their commercial food products, such as jams.

Saturday 1 January 2022

Active sites of peptides Asp-Asp-Asp-Tyr and Asp-Tyr-Asp-Asp protect against cellular oxidative stress

 Food Chem. 366, 130626, 2022

The protective effects of the peptides Asp-Asp-Asp-Tyr (DDDY) and Asp-Tyr-Asp-Asp (DYDD) against AAPH-induced HepG2 cells are unclear. Our objective was to investigate the active sites of these peptides and their cellular antioxidant mechanism. DDDY and DYDD show a direct free radical scavenging effect in reducing ROS levels and maintained cellular antioxidant enzymes at normal levels. The quantum chemistry analysis of the electronic properties of antioxidant activity showed that DYDD has a greater energy in the highest occupied molecular orbital than DDDY, and O58-H59 and N10-H12 were identified as the active antioxidant sites in DYDD and DDDY, respectively, indicating that the inconsistent arrangement of amino acids affects the distribution of the highest occupied orbital energy as well as the active sites; thus, influences the antioxidant activity of peptides. It provide valuable insights into the antioxidant active sites of peptides.