Thursday 14 April 2022

Effects of Torreya grandis Kernel Oil on Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Flora in C57BL/6J Mice

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 4472751

Recent experimental studies have shown that vegetable oil supplementation ameliorates high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in mice via modulating hepatic lipid metabolism and the composition of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the Torreya grandis kernel oil (TKO) rich in unpolysaturated fatty acid against hyperlipidemia and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Methods. Normal mice were randomly divided into three groups: ND (normal diet), LO (normal diet supplement with 4% TKO), and HO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Hyperlipidemia mice were randomly divided into two groups: HFN (normal diet) and HFO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Blood biochemistry and histomorphology were observed; liver RNA-seq, metabolomics, and gut 16S rRNA were analyzed. 

Continuous supplementation of TKO in normal mice significantly ameliorated serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation, decreased blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA), and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. According to GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathways, and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) might be involved in the metabolism of lipids. High-dose TKO improved gut alpha diversity and beta diversity showing that the microbial community compositions of the five groups were different. 

Supplementation of TKO functions in the prevention of hyperlipidemia via regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and enhancing microbiota richness in normal mice. Our study is the first to reveal the mechanism of TKO regulating blood lipid levels by using multiomics and promote further studies on TKO for their biological activity.