Thursday 12 January 2023

Targeting of neuroinflammation by glibenclamide in Covid-19: old weapon from arsenal

 Inflammopharmacology, 31, 1-7 (2023)

In coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) era, neuroinflammation may develop due to neuronal tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and/or associated immune activation, cytokine storm, and psychological stress. SARS-CoV-2 infection and linked cytokine storm may cause blood–brain barrier (BBB) injury through which activated immune cells and SARS-CoV-2 can pass into the brain causing activation of glial cells with subsequent neuroinflammation. Different therapeutic regimens were suggested to alleviate Covid-19-induced neuroinflammation. Since glibenclamide has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, it could be effective in mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced neuroinflammation. Glibenclamide is a second-generation drug from the sulfonylurea family, which acts by inhibiting the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K channel in the regulatory subunit of type 1 sulfonylurea receptor (SUR-1) in pancreatic β cells. Glibenclamide reduces neuroinflammation and associated BBB injury by inhibiting the nod-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, oxidative stress, and microglial activation. Therefore, glibenclamide through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome, microglial activation, and oxidative stress may attenuate SARS-CoV-2-mediated neuroinflammation.