Thursday 23 March 2023

Possible role of nutrition in the prevention of inflammatory bowel disease–related colorectal cancer: A focus on human studies

 Nutrition, 110, 111980 (2023)

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at substantially high risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). IBD-associated CRC accounts for roughly 10% to 15% of the annual mortality in patients with IBD. IBD-related CRC also affects younger patients compared with sporadic CRC, with a 5-y survival rate of 50%. Regardless of medical therapies, the persistent inflammatory state characterizing IBD raises the risk for precancerous changes and CRC, with additional input from several elements, including genetic and environmental risk factors, IBD-associated comorbidities, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and gut microbiota modifications. It is well known that nutritional habits and dietary bioactive compounds can influence IBD-associated inflammation, microbiome abundance and composition, oxidative stress balance, and gut permeability.

Additionally, in recent years, results from broad epidemiologic and experimental studies have associated certain foods or nutritional patterns with the risk for colorectal neoplasia. The present study aimed to review the possible role of nutrition in preventing IBD-related CRC, focusing specifically on human studies. It emerges that nutritional interventions based on healthy, nutrient-dense dietary patterns characterized by a high intake of fiber, vegetables, fruit, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low amount of animal proteins, processed foods, and alcohol, combined with probiotic supplementation have the potential of reducing IBD-activity and preventing the risk of IBD-related CRC through different mechanisms, suggesting that targeted nutritional interventions may represent a novel promising approach for the prevention and management of IBD-associated CRC.